Note 01 Welcome to Physics A10H3S Introduction to Physics I First Day Handout This is only an outline. For more information see the course web page: www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~quick/PHYA10S The instructor of the course is: Dr. Stuart Quick UTSC: Room S-503B - telephone 287-7249 e-mail: [email protected] Lectures: All lectures are in Room SW309. The day and time of the lectures are: Monday, 3 – 4 pm Friday, 1 – 3 pm Tutorials: Tutorials are held at various times and in various rooms on Friday. These will focus on problem solving, and will include a number of short quizzes for credit. Please note your tutorial section number (T#). The time for your tutorial section to meet and the room number are posted on the course web page and on the wall just inside the lab area in room S-503. Please see Dr. Quick (S-503B) if you have a conflict. If, for whatever reason, you must change your tutorial section, do so on ROSI. Problems: Practice problems are assigned most weeks to encourage you to master the mathematical aspects of the course and problem-solving techniques. For credit, your solution papers must be stapled together and handed in at the tutorial section in which you are registered. No papers will be accepted by anyone other than your tutor at the beginning of your tutorial. While the homework assignments will not be individually graded, you are strongly advised to hand them in, as handing them in will contribute to your tutorial mark. Be warned that some of the homework problems will appear (perhaps in modified form) on the term test and on the final exam. Drop-in Centre: If demand warrants, a Drop-in Centre will be held on Thursday morning 10-12 am and afternoon 2-4 pm in Room S-503B. The Drop-in Centre is staffed by Dr. Quick. Office hours: For more information on the instructor’s office hours see the bulletin board on the instructor’s office door or the course web page. Laboratory: The laboratory consists of five 3 hour sessions, every second week, as determined by your individual schedule. Enter the lab via S-503D. Dr. Quick is also in charge of the laboratory for the course. The time of your lab section is posted just inside room S-503. See Dr. Quick if you have a conflict. If, for whatever reason, you must change your practical section, make the change on ROSI. Term Tests: It is your responsibility to write the term tests at the times that are scheduled. There are no makeup tests. For more information on the term tests and other late-breaking course news see the course web page 01-1 Note 01 MATERIALS Materials except the lab manual are sold in the Bookstore; manuals are sold in Room S-644. Textbook: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics by Randall D. Knight (Pearson/Addison Wesley, 1st Edition, 2004). Accompanying the text is a Student Workbook and a CD-ROM Student Access Kit for MasteringPhysics, an online tutoring system.. Lab Manual: PHYA10H3F/PHYA10H3S/PHYA21H3S Laboratory Manual 2004/2005 Lab Workbook: University Physics Notebook (black cover) Calculator: Any scientific calculator will be adequate. Only calculators that have no alphanumeric keyboard may be used for the quizzes, term test and the final exam. Set of Drawing Instruments: Highly recommended. PREREQUISITES and COREQUISITES The prerequisites and corequisites are as printed in the UTSC Calendar for 2004-2005. If you have any question on these ask Dr. Quick. MARKING SCHEME Laboratory ..... Tutorials ... Term tests ....... Final exam ..... 25% (based on attendance, lab notebook, two formal reports) 10% (based on participation in tutorials including problem sets and quizzes) 20% 45% If you miss a test, homework assignment or lab report you will be given zero unless you provide the instructor with an acceptable explanation in writing. In the event you are ill, you must provide Dr. Quick with a doctor's certificate within 5 working days after the test. HONESTY With the exception of exams, tests, and quizzes, you may discuss problems and homework assignments with others so long as you turn in your own work. Any discussions are part of the learning process; once you learn how to solve a problem you are expected to solve it by yourself, and the solution you turn in must be your own work. It is a serious academic offence to turn in any solution you have copied from the work of someone else. For more information on plagiarism see the course web page. WEB PAGE The primary source for up-to-date course information is the course web page. You can access the page directly via the URL given at the top of the first page of this handout or via the Physical and Environmental Sciences Home Page. On the web page you will find the course outline, lecture notes (this series of documents), lecture schedule, and the current homework assignment. You will need to enter a user name and a password (to be supplied in class) to access the lecture notes and the homework assignments. 01-2 Note 01 What is Physics? Calendar Description Physics is the study of the basic laws that govern how material objects move and influence each other. The effect of a star on the motion of a planet, of the Earth on the motion of a satellite, the effect of a molecule on a nearby atom, or of an atomic nucleus on an electron, can be accurately described by the laws of physics. Although Newton’s laws of motion adequately describe some of these situations, in most cases it is necessary to apply the most recently discovered refinements of these laws—quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity, together with the understanding of electric and magnetic effects so beautifully synthesized in Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. From these basic principles many of the properties of gases, liquids, solids, plasmas, and nuclear matter can be related to the interactions among the individual units of which these forms of matter are composed. h1 h? 30˚ 45˚ A B C Figure 1-1. A favorite demonstration of instructors consists of three straight sections of metal track. If a ball is released from position A it will roll down the track and briefly come to rest at some position F. Is h = h1? Why or why not? C Physics is a Construct From the beginning you should understand that physics, like all sciences, was developed in stages by generations of men and women working over many years. And it continues to be developed today. As such it is a human invention—a construct built on basic and arbitrary (though well-thought-out) definitions, standards and laws. Though the standards may be arbitrary (other standards might easily have been agreed upon) they are applied by physicists in a consistent way to make the subject as intelligible as possible. A physical law, too, is a construct; it is a succinct statement of the working of a certain kind of phenomenon, a working that is borne out by experimental evidence. If evidence is found that is not described by the law, then the law must be changed. This is the way of science. So as you read these notes be alert to the constructs when they appear. Examples of constructs are Newton’s laws of motion, energy, the field and many others. Questions Physics Attempts to Answer Physics is the science that attempts to answer the most basic questions (Figures 1-1 and 1-2 illustrate two of the simplest). Why do objects, when released, fall toward the Earth? Why do the planets revolve around the Sun? Why does light behave as a particle in some situations, and as a wave in others? Why can’t we travel faster than the speed of light? Your instructor will no doubt demonstrate in class some of the effects that physics attempts to describe. B A 320 m Figure 1-2. A ball is projected horizontally from some position above the earth. What approximate path, A, B or C does the ball take and why? Questions Frequently Asked Students frequently ask a number of questions about the PHYA10/PHYA21 courses. We have collected a few of them here. • Is PHYA10 a Repeat of High School Physics? The answer is partly yes and partly no, but mostly no. There is always some overlap between a course and what has gone before. Physics is constructed like a building with a foundation of definitions, standards and mathematical techniques. The building blocks laid on this foundation are the laws of motion, conservation of energy and momentum, topics of heat and light and so on. The mastery of topics in physics and mathematics takes time. The level of PHYA10 is higher than most high school physics courses because it makes use of concepts of functions and calculus to 01-3 Note 01 name two. Mathematics is inseparable from physics. But the level of understanding provided by PHYA10 in turn, is limited too. PHYA10 is itself a prerequisite for courses in electricity and magnetism and others in the second and third years that build on topics covered here. • Why is Calculus a Corequisite of the Course? Calculus is a corequisite of the course because calculus is so important to physics. Calculus was invented to make the description of certain things possible (and easier). • What is Expected of Me? In this course you will have to read a good deal. You will have to read these notes. You will have to read the textbook. You will have to read the Students’ Workbook. You will have to read the laboratory manual. The more you read the better prepared you will be for appreciating the subtleties of physics, and the connections that exist between the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject. So be prepared to read, read, read. • What is Meant by “Describing”? In these notes we use the word “describe” quite often. Physics is the science that attempts to explain or describe things—objects in freefall, the motion of a projectile, the motion of the Earth around the Sun, the nature of light. The word “describe” means to explain the phenomenon, not just in words, but more importantly, in the language of mathematics. When we say we shall describe the motion of a projectile, for example, we mean we shall derive from basic ideas and definitions the position of the projectile and how that position changes with time as a mathematical function. Indeed, it could be said that mathematics is the language of physics. Physical proofs are presented as mathematical descriptions. Now, there is no guarantee that a mathematical description will be correct in all cases. This is where experimental physics and the lab comes into play. Indeed, as we shall attempt to show in these notes and in the laboratory, experimental data is crucial in proving or disproving mathematical descriptions. All this is consistent with what we have stated earlier, that physics is a construct developed in stages. • Why is there a Physics Lab? We have already given one reason for a lab in the previous section. Part of the experience of PHYA10/PHYA21 consists of a laboratory. Physics is 01-4 as much an experimental science as it is a theoretical one. Only by working with real instruments in a real physics lab can you appreciate what physics is. Without a laboratory, a physics course would be just applied mathematics, the solving on paper of carefully-crafted problems. In the physics lab you will use high-quality instruments, the kind that real scientists use in research or in industry. You will receive a technical training that will stand you in good stead in later studies in physics and in other sciences. In the physics lab you will write formal reports, not so much for the purpose of being tested, as for the purpose of learning how to express yourself in the English language and the language of science. Report writing is vital in all the sciences, as it is in history or business studies. • What Should I Study from, the Notes or Text? We have chosen the textbook for this course because we think it a good one. This book attempts to address many of the misconceptions held by many first year students. It is designed to get you thinking about the concepts of physics, to teach you an understanding of the subject, and not just to train you to get the correct answer in a physics problem. Indeed, be warned that the questions on the quizzes, tests and exams in this course have been selected to test you as much on the concepts of physics as on getting a correct numerical answer. However, the physics textbook is rather long (not to mention heavy!). After all, it is intended to be complete. It is your source to consult for the fine details. It is a kind of physics encyclopedia. It has many more examples than any instructor can hope to cover in the lectures. We suggest, then, that you use these course notes to guide what you read from the textbook. For many topics, the course notes follow the textbook closely (indeed, to the point of using the same graphics). Other topics are presented from the instructor’s point of view. The course notes will tell you which sections in the textbook you will be tested on, which sections you should read for your own interest, and which sections you may omit altogether. OUR GUARANTEE! You will be tested only on the physics concepts covered in the course notes.