# Second-Order Sallen-Key Filters Properties of Sallen ```Second-Order Sallen-Key Filters
S.K. Low-Pass Filter
S.K. High-Pass Filter
R
C
R
R
+
0
-
0
Vin
C
Vout
Q=
(A-1)R
R
1
,
RC
Av = A,
C
ωc =
0
C
+
0
-
0
Vin
Vout
R
1
3− A
S.K. Band-Pass Filter
C
0
0
C
Vout
2R
R
Q=
1
3− A
S.K. Band-Reject Filter
2C
+
0
-
Vin
(A-1)R
R
R
R
1
,
RC
Av = A,
ωc =
0
(A-1)R
1
ωo =
RC
1
Q=
3− A
Av = AQ
R
C
1
RC
1
Q=
4 − 2A
Av = A
ωo =
R
0
+
0
-
C
0
Vin
Vout
R/2
R
(A-1)R
Properties of Sallen-Key Filters:
1. Simplicity of the design
2. Non-Inverting Amplifier (positive Gain)
3. Replication of elements
Limitations of Sallen-Key Filters:
1. The Gain and Q are related
2. Q must be &gt; &frac12;, since A must be &gt; 1
Other Active Filters
Band Pass 1:
Cf
Rf
Ri
H (s) = −
Ci
Vin
Vout
1
s
Rf C f
Rf
Ri
⎛ 1
1
s2 + ⎜
+
⎜ R f C f Ri Ci
⎝
⎞
1
⎟⎟ s +
Ri Ci R f C f
⎠
Band Pass 2:
R3
C2
R2
C1
Vin
H (s) =
Vout
R1
−
1
s
R2C2
⎛ C + C2 ⎞
1
s2 + ⎜ 1
⎟s +
||
R
C
C
R
R
⎝ 3 1 2 ⎠ ( 1 2 ) R3C1C2
Band Pass 3:
R2
C2
R1
C1
Vin
1
s
R1C2
H (s) =
⎛ C + C2 ⎞
1
s2 + ⎜ 1
⎟s +
R1R2C1C2
⎝ R2C1C2 ⎠
−
Vout
Band Reject 1:
R1
⎛ 2
R3 ⎞
1
s2 + s ⎜
−
⎟+ 2
R4
⎝ R 2 C R1R4C ⎠ C R1R2
H (s) =
2
1
R3 + R4
s2 + s
+ 2
R2C C R1R2
R2
C
C
R3
Vin
Vout
R4
Other Active Filters
Properties &amp; Design Hints
• These amplifiers are “inverting amplifiers” (negative
gain)
• BPF1 is restricted to Q &gt; &frac12;.
• BPF2 can have a Q &lt; &frac12; if C1 ≠ C2 .
• Both gain and Q can be controlled with the circuit
elements.
• BRF1 does not have a true zero on the imaginary axis
R
2
unless 3 = .
R1R4 R2
• A design may not require a true null, but a notch. The
zero can be adjusted to control the “dip” in the
response.
• Typical design: Specify the gain, Q, and resonant
frequency, and then solve for the circuit elements.
o Requires some assumptions for the values of R’s
and C’s (problem is under-determined). Choose R
to be large (&gt; 1 k) when possible. Possibly choose
relationships (such as C1 = k &times; C2 ).
o Equations for remaining elements can be nonlinear.
o Not all values of Q, Av, and ωo are necessarily
possible.
o Gain may not be as important as Q and resonant
frequency if the amplifier is one stage of a system
design.
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