©All Rights Reserved. The contents of this document cannot be reproduced without prior permission of the authors. How does our paper contribute to the building of the analytical framework for DEMOLOGOS? A disciplining grid to be completed and added to your paper for Vienna. There are overlaps between categories; still please complete where you can. The grid is built using the various tables in D1.1; you can always go back to that document if things are not clear…. 1. Which elements of the socio-economic system are explained? This is an open question. I would like to explore the possibility of gender discourse in providing new ways of approaching and addressing a wide range of social and cultural phenomena in development studies, both analytically and practically. I have organised the paper around two very basic assertions drawn from contemporary feminist theory in social sciences: a) firstly that gender is a key relational dimension of human activity and cannot be equated solely with women (“add women and stir” approach), b) and secondly, gender issues must necessarily vary from place to place and over time. It would therefore be impossible to deal exhaustively with all the most crucial gender issues in development studies. What I attempt to do is to situate development studies broadly within a limited set of inter-linked, evolving approaches to the study of gender. I begin with a brief historical overview of how gender emerged as a category of analysis in the literature on development and how it has transformed the nature of research questions and accepted knowledge. 2. Which types of explanation? (consult figure 1 in D1.1 before completing; use the specifications given there) These categories refer to the original labels shared with the EC. These labels will need to be used in WP2 and certainly in WP3, even their analytical calibration will benefit from epistemological pluralism: - Economic explanation - Political explanation - Social explanation - Socio-cultural explanation - Institutional explanation - Articulation between various spatial scales 3. Which analytical themes have been addressed in the paper? (figure 2 in D1.1) Use the right-hand column to specify the meaning of the themes in the theories, schools, thematic approaches you are treating in your paper. The suggestions in the right hand column as printed here will guide you to complete it. Themes Special DEMOLOGOS concerns Scale • Uneven development -- inequality in development, • global economy Democracy and authoritarianism Crisis and crisis mechanisms/patterns Gender Empowerment • This is not a major issue in any of these theories Development and development views • • • Competition, competitiveness vs equality, inclusion vs. exclusion Articulation of sub-systems (complexity) – spatial Ideology, discourse and paradigm Development itself Engendering development How benefit and burden of development are distributed The benefits of development are distributed unequally between the North and the South and between men and women • The relationship between reproductive and reproductive sphere • Hierarchical relations between the North and the South 4. What is the economy – Economic ontology? Economic Ontologies The need to reformulate the development in terms of capabilities and overcome the fetishism of economic categories is emphasised, as is the role of reciprocity and women’s movements and the importance of the qualitative approach (Nussbaum) and everyday life. • • • • • • • • What is the economy? Is it self-contained? The economic and the extraeconomic Limits of the market; other allocation and coordination principles Role of distribution, association, reciprocity,.. Anti-economism Fetishism of economic categories -- foundations of economic discourse “Values”: development of what for what? Quantities vs qualitative analysis. Scale as a value (Small is Democratic?) 5. Epistemological questions Objectivist of subjectivist position of theoretician? The role of reflexivity? The social embeddedness of scientific practice and theory building? Are we dealing with normative or analytical theories? With our without predictive power pretentions? ( We are dealing mostly with analytical theories. The paper claims that the discussion on gender needs to be placed within a more reflexive framework Sociology of knowledge-construction; link also to ontological questions under 4. above. This should shed some light on the meaning of categories and concepts within particular theories. Historical embedding of theories and approaches – recapturing what has been lost, hegemonies and exclusions o Rise and demise of theories within ideo-political and iceo-economic contexts o “Synthesis”, re-interpretation of theories o Theories and historical-geographical dynamics (Hegemony, subsumption, marginalization) o Theories and historical praxis o Development policies have shifted over time from a focus only on women as biological units to one based on gender and relational and social dimensions, sometimes including environmental issues. 6. Methodological dimensions This section covers a ‘reductionist’ view of methodology: what is the practice of empirical research for the family of theories, the thematic analysis, you are dealing with? Critical here is the extent to which a gender perspective can recognize and take account of different spheres of life beyond the narrowly defined economic arena. Care, for example, cannot be marginalized. Thus gender allows us to recognize interdependence (of spheres, but also of people) in the process of exclusion and inclusion, of development and so on. The paper tried to combine personalistic and structural approaches.