Building Vocabulary Through Text

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Building Vocabulary
for 3rd
Grade Students
Presented by:
Sheryl White
[email protected]
Session Objectives
• Understand vocabulary demands in the
Common Core State Standards
• Understand the Tiers of vocabulary
• Understand the importance of direct
vocabulary instruction to improve
comprehension of text, speaking, listening
and writing
• Gain instructional strategies that will
enhance vocabulary instruction
How much do you know about the 3
tiers of vocabulary?
Use a
1
Not heard of
three tiers of
vocabulary
to show your current understanding.
2
Very little
knowledge of
three tiers of
vocabulary
3
Some
familiarity of
three tiers of
vocabulary
4
Know three
tiers of
vocabulary and
how to use
5
Deep
knowledge of
three tiers …
can teach
others
Common Core Vocabulary
3rd Grade
L.3.5 Demonstrate understanding of word
relationships and nuances in word meanings.
• L.3.5.a Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings
of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps).
• L.3.5.b Identify real-life connections between words
and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly
or helpful).
• L.3.5.c Distinguish shades of meaning among related
words that describe states of mind or degrees of
certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard,
wondered).
Common Core Vocabulary
3rd Grade
L.3.6 Acquire and use accurately grade appropriate
conversational, general academic, and domain
specific words and phrases, including those that
signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g.,
After dinner that night we went looking for
them).
What do we need to do?
Vocabulary instruction is a priority in
the Common Core.
Teachers need to:
• Explicitly teach vocabulary in all subject areas.
• Engage students in learning new words.
How do we get our students excited
about learning new words?
Vocabulary…
Why Teach It?
• Talk to an elbow partner about the
question.
• Share your ideas with the others at your
table.
• Record as many reasons as you can for
teaching vocabulary.
Let’s
at some of
the research related to
vocabulary
development.
Reading comprehension =
Knowledge of Words +
Knowledge of the World
What Does Research Say?
Homes rich in communicationChildren before the age of four have heard
45 million words.
Homes that lack rich communicationChildren before the age of four have heard
13 million words.
(Hart and Risley 1996)
Actual Differences in
Quantity of Words Heard
In a typical hour at home, the average child would hear:
Welfare
Working class
Professional
616 words
1251 words
2153 words
Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children, Hart & Risley
Sadly,
socioeconomic
status has the
most significant
factor effect on a
child’s vocabulary
knowledge.
More Research Findings…
Third grade students with restricted vocabulary have
declining comprehension scores.
The gap continues to widen during the elementary
years.
By the end of second grade, students in the highest
vocabulary quartile know 4000 more root words
than students in the lowest vocabulary quartile.
Effective Approaches to
Teaching Vocabulary
• Exposure to High-Quality Oral Language
• Reading Aloud to Students-Word
Consciousness
• Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
• Word-Learning Strategies
• Wide Independent Reading
Less Effective Approaches to
Teaching Vocabulary
• Copying definitions from a dictionary
• Writing sentences with vocabulary words before
studying the words
• Using context to figure out the word
• Memorizing a list of “decontextualized” words
High-Quality Oral Language
• Use high quality vocabulary in the classroom.
• Tell students the meaning of words when first
used.
– “Don’t procrastinate on your work.
Procrastinate means to wait to do something
you should be doing already.”
– Pair in the meaning of the word by using
parallel language.
“Please refrain from talking. Please don’t
talk.”
COLLEGE TALK
High-Quality Oral Language
I really have to try hard
while climbing this big
mountain!
I really have to be
persistent while climbing
this enormous mountain!
Reading Aloud
Vocabulary can be gained from listening to
others read.
– Listening to a book being read can
significantly improve children’s expressive
vocabulary.
– Print vocabulary is more extensive and
diverse than oral vocabulary.
– Wide disparities exist in the amount of time
parents read to their children before lst
grade.
Reading Aloud
Vocabulary can be gained from listening to
others read.
– Choose interesting, engaging stories that
attract and hold children’s attention. The
books should also be somewhat
challenging.
– Use performance-oriented reading. Read
with expression and enthusiasm.
– Provide students with a little explanation of
novel words that are encountered in
context.
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
• Vocabulary activities specifically designed to
teach new words
• Explicit vocabulary strategies
– Use informational and narrative texts as tools
– Promote thinking and extend discourse
– Encourage use of novel words
– Provide extended access to print
– Examine word relationships
– Teach word parts
– Use graphic organizers
20
Successful Vocabulary Instruction
A successful approach to vocabulary
instruction involves directly explaining the
meanings of words along with thoughtprovoking, playful and interactive follow-up.
Common Core
and
Three Tiers
of
Vocabulary
Three Tiers of Words
Tier One
Tier Two
Tier Three
High
Frequency
Words
Academic
Vocabulary
Domain-specific
Vocabulary
24
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier 1- Everyday Words (implicit)
–Used in everyday speech*
–Words English Language Learners will
need to learn
chair, bed, happy, house
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier Two = Academic Vocabulary
• Words in general use, not content specific
• Appear far more in written texts than in
speech
– concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved,
dignity, convenient, observation,
persistence
++describe, detail, example
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier Three- Domain-Specific Words
• Words related to a specific content or field
of study
– triangle, stem, addition, syllable
– tundra, igneous, triangle, perpendicular,
democracy
Three Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier 1
Tier 2
Tier 3
Description
Basic words
that most
children
know before
entering
school
Examples
clock, baby,
happy
Words that
appear
frequently in
texts and for
which students
already have
conceptual
understanding
coincidence,
fortunate,
insist, adapt
Uncommon
words that
are typically
associated
with a
specific
domain or
content area
chrysalis,
peninsula,
decimal
(Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002)
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Sources of Words
Sources of words for vocabulary instruction
– WORDS from read-aloud books
– WORDS from core reading programs
– WORDS from reading intervention programs
– WORDS from content area instruction and texts
• Math
• Science
• Social studies
• Health
• Art, PE, music, etc.
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Selection of Words
Select words that :
• are likely unfamiliar
• are critical to passage understanding.
• students are likely to encounter in the future
and are generally useful.
• are Tier Two words (Academic Vocabulary)
• are easily explained to children at their level
(Beck & McKeown, 2003)
(Stahl, 1986)
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Selection of Vocabulary
• “Goldilocks Words”
– Not too difficult
– Not too easy
– Just right
(Stahl & Stahl, 2004)
Three Tiers of Words Sorting Activity
Place the list of words under the appropriate
Tier by referring to the descriptions above.
Tier One Words
Tier Two Words
Tier Three Words
How did you do?
Choosing Tier Two Words
Her thoughts were interrupted by loud shouts
and a commotion from the wedding party
assembled outside. Manyara was missing!
Everyone bustled about, searching and calling for
her. When they found her footprints on the path
that led to the city, they decided to go on as
planned.
(Mufaro’s Beautiful Daughters, John Steptoe)
Your Turn
Selecting Tier 2 Words
• At your table, choose one of the texts you
have brought to work with today.
• Identify (4 )Tier 2 words you would teach
your students.
• Use the selection criteria page to help guide
you through this process.
How do I determine that a word is TIER
Word
Is this a
generally
useful word?
Does the
word relate
to other
words and
ideas that
students
know or have
been
learning?
Is the word
useful in
helping
students
understand
text?
2?
If you answer
yes to all
three
questions, it
is a tier 2
word. If not,
it is probably
a tier 3 word.
What Strategies Would You Use to
Teach Your Selected Words?
Fold the Line
The Importance of Providing
Student-Friendly Definitions
Providing student-friendly definitions—ones that
are accurate and that students will understand—is
no mean task. Below is a definition of dazzling
from the dictionary and a student-friendly
definition. Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2003).
“bright enough to deprive someone of sight
temporarily”
“If something is dazzling, that means that it’s so bright
that you can hardly look at it.”
Explicit Instruction
Student-Friendly Explanations
Dictionary Definition
Student-Friendly Explanations
disgusting - to cause to feel
disgust; be sickening, repulsive, or
very distasteful to
fragile - easily broken, damaged, or
destroyed
gratitude - a feeling of thankful
appreciation for favors or benefits
received
loitering - to linger in an aimless
way; spend time idly
39
Providing Student-Friendly Definitions
TASK:
• Partner into A and B
• Each partner should choose one word each
from your earlier selection.
• Then take turns providing a student-friendly
definition for your word.
THIS TAKES PRACTICE and TIME
Looking Deeper at Tier Two Words
Using the Tier 2 Word List….
• Read the list of words.
• Underline or highlight any words you may
need to teach your students this year.
This is only a sample list of Tier Two words
your students may need to learn. There are
many others you can select.
Spatial and Temporal Relationships
Spatial words and phrases
• Where = Location
Temporal words and phrases
• When = Time
Spatial and Temporal Relationships
•
•
•
•
Anchor Charts
Sentence Builders
Mentor Text
Writer’s Notebook
A Vocabulary Instructional Sequence
for Read Aloud
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Contextualize the word
Say the word together
Give a student-friendly definition
Use in other contexts
Engage students in interactions with words
Say the word together.
Example:
1. Introduce the word.
This word is survive. What word?
2. Present a student-friendly explanation.
When people or animals don’t die when things are
very bad or dangerous, they survive.
3. Illustrate the word with examples.
Look at the people on this river. It is very
dangerous.
However, they don’t get hurt or die, they
__________.
Example:
4.
Check students’ understanding.
(Examples and non-examples)
Get ready to tell me if this group would survive.
If the winter was very cold and all food was buried under the
snow, would whooping cranes survive?________ Ones, tell
your partner why they wouldn’t survive?
If whooping cranes had plenty of food and the weather was
warm, would they survive? __________ Twos, tell your
partner why they would survive?
(Deep Processing Questions)
If a rabbit was being chased by a coyote, what could the rabbit
do to survive?
Making Vocabulary Active
TPR- Total Physical Response
• recognizes the value of language being
associated with physical responses
• grammar-based view of language that focuses
on meaning, not form
• evidence-based strategy for English Language
Learners
strong
Literal and Nonliteral Meanings
Artwork
• Have students select a figurative speech
phrase such as, “That person is ‘as smart as a
whip’” and create a drawing that illustrates it.
Label the phrase that accompanies it.
• Provide a meaning of the nonliteral words
Idiom:
Meaning:
Real-life Connections Between
Words and Their Use
Words are all around us. This standard
encourages teachers to help students use
language to describe his or her world.
Real-Life
connections
between words
and their use..
Describe
using…
• words
• phrases
• sentences
• and pictures.
Structured Semantic Mapping
(Heimlich & Pittelman)
Webbing the Descriptions
Your Turn
• Each table will be given a “topic” to describle.
• Use words, phrases, our sentences to describe
your category.
• Tell why!
• You may draw a picture to add to it.
Writing
• Have students use their descriptions to compose
a piece of writing.
• The teacher may guide the student to narrow
down their writing to one idea that was
generated and described.
• For example; “Write about one situation that
could be very dangerous. Provide details and
descriptions to illustrate why it would be
dangerous.”
Shades of Meaning
Shades of meaning describe words that have
slightly different meanings.
THE BIG IDEA
• Shades of Meaning is a phrase used
to describe the small, subtle
differences in meaning between
similar words or phrases.
• For example, ‘mad’ and ‘angry’.
Both refer to a feeling or showing of
anger, but one seems to be more so
than the other.
Which one would you say is…?
Would you say that these people
are all ‘walking’?
Semantic Gradients
1. Select a pair of polar opposite words.
2. Generate at least five synonyms for each of the
opposite words.
3. Arrange the words in a way that forms a
continuum from one opposite word to the other.
Continuums can be done horizontal or vertical, in
a ladder-like fashion.
4. Have students discuss their rationale for placing
certain words in certain locations. Encourage a
conversation about the subtle differences among
the words.
A Staircase of Words
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
Shades of Meaning
• Select a specific vocabulary word, e.g., large.
• Create a list of semantically similar words. It
may work best to think of your target word as
being in the center of your continuum.
• Arrange the words in a way that illustrates an
understanding of each word's meaning.
Continuums can be done horizontal or vertical,
in a ladder like fashion.
• Have students discuss their rationale for placing
certain words in certain locations.
• Encourage a conversation about the subtle
differences among the words.
A Ladder of Shades of Words
humongous
gigantic
huge
massive
large
big
A Ladder of Shades of Words
Teeter-Totter Words
large
Shades of Word Meaning
Using a sentence strip, record each
of these words on a card. Place the
card in order from least intense to
most intense.
stroll, wander, trudge, swagger,
stride, tread, shuffle, creep
“stroll” – to describe walking for pleasure without hurrying
“wander” – to describe walking without specific purpose
“trudge” – to describe walking slowly with effort, usually in
a tiring and long journey
“swagger” – to describe walking as if you are very important
“stride” – to describe walking fast, taking big steps
“tread” – to describe taking a step on or over something
“shuffle” – to describe walking slowly, without taking your
feet off the ground
“creep” – to describe walking without making any noise
because you do not want people to notice you.
A Bridge
One Meaning to Others
• Sort words by degrees or shades of meaning using visual
cues
• Act out (when possible) the different meanings
Awake
Tired
Drowsy
Asleep
Shades of Meaning
Place the words in order from weakest to strongest meaning.
2
1
4
3
toss, pitch, throw, hurt
Using Color
• Using paint sample strips to help students see
the “shades” of meanings of words
• Write in order the words
from the cards you have
been given.
• Try it!!!
Shades of Meaning Match Up
angry
shout
delighted
yell
call
cross
thrilled
happy
furious
Shades of Meaning
Place related words on each line, from mild to medium to strong.
mild
medium
strong
Words and Shades of Meaning
• Acting out
• Play charades-provide students the word
choices up front
• Simon Says
– walk, march, strut, prance
– speak, whisper, murmur
3-2-1
List 3 Things You Learned:
List 2 Things You Will Try:
List 1 Question You Have:
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