Biology 241 – Lecture Chapter 1 (Introduction to the Human Body) Practice Quiz 1. What is the literal / popular meaning of Anatomy? What is the literal / figurative meaning of Physiology? 2. Levels of organization in the human body may be compared to levels of organization in language – specifically, the language that makes up your textbook. Fill in the blanks below to complete that analogy: a. Letters → _________ → sentences → paragraphs → _________ → the entire book b. Chemicals → organelles → cells → ________ → organs → ________ → the entire _________. c. Structure → __________ 3. Refer to the list of Life Processes in the box below. Demonstrate your understanding of these processes by selecting the answer that best fits each of the activities in your own body as described in a – e. (Use each answer only once.) A. Differentiation D. Movement B. Growth E. Reproduction C. Metabolism F. Responsiveness _____a. Your hunger at 8:00 AM prompts you to head towards breakfast. ____, ____d. After you work out 4 days a week for one month, you notice that your arm and thigh muscles (biceps and quadriceps) are larger. (Use two answers) _____b. During breakfast, you chew your toast with _____e. As you work out, “stem cells” in your bone jelly and an egg; your stomach and instestines marrow are stimulated to mature into red blood cells then contract to help break apart the food and (RBCs) so you experience a healthy increase in propel it through the digestive tract. your RBC count (hematocrit). _____c. Your body utilizes the starch, sugars, and proteins in your breakfast food to provide building blocks for your own proteins and to provide energy to your eyes and brain to study A & P. 4. a. Homeo means _______________________________ and stasis means ___________________________. b. From a seated position, first hold on to your chair (for safety) and then stand up quickly. Describe the homeostatic mechanism that follows as an effort to maintain your blood pressure (BP) at a normal level, by circling the appropriate word of the pair of words, or by filling in the blank provided: (1) The effect of gravity as you stand up causes blood to flow to the (upper / lower) parts of your body, ___-creasing BP in your upper body. This change is called a(n) (stimulus / output), which causes (effectors / receptors) in blood vessels of your neck to sense the change in BP. As a result, nerve impulses, called (input / output) are sent to your brain, known as the ______________ center. (2) Your brain then conveys nerve impulses called (effectors / output / response), to your heart and blood vessels. These organs serve as (effectors / output / response) and cause the desired (effectors / output / response): an elevation of your BP back to normal. (3) The homeostatic mechanism just described is a (positive / negative) feedback mechanism because the slight decrease in BP, upon your standing, triggered mechanisms to ___-crease BP back to normal. if mechanisms had caused your blood pressure to drop even further as you stood, this would have been a (positive / negative) feedback mechanism. Biology 241 – Lecture – Chapter 1: Practice Quiz - continued Page Two 5. Write a description of anatomical position. Why is it “the starting point” for anatomists? 6. Complete the table relating common names to anatomical terms. (For extra practice, use anatomical terms to identify each region of your own body and that of a study partner. Common Name Anatomical Term a. b. Fingers Axillary c. Arm d. e. f. Mouth g. h. Chest i. Gluteal Cephalic Inguinal Cervical 7. Using your own body, a skeleton, or a torso model, determine relationships among body parts. Write the correct directional term(s) to complete each of the following statements: a. The liver is ___________________________ to the diaphragm. b. Fingers (phalanges) are located ___________________________ to wrist bones (carpals). c. Skin on the dorsal surface of the body can also be said to be located on the __________________ surface. d. The great toe (aka “big” toe) is ________________________ to the little toe. e. The skin on your leg is ________________________ to the muscles of your leg. f. When you float facedown in a pool, you are lying on your ______________________ surface. g. The lungs and heart are located ___________________________ to the abdominal organs. h. A frontal plane divides the body into _____________________ and ____________________ portions. i. A ___________________________ plane divides the body into equal right and left halves. j. A horizontal plane is also known as a ____________________plane; and a cut along this plane results in dividing the specimen into ________________________ and ________________________ portions. 8. Complete this exercise about body cavities. Circle the correct word within the parentheses: a. The (dorsal / ventral) body cavity consists of the cranial and vertebral cavity sub-divisions. b. Heart, lungs, and intestines are all located in the (dorsal / ventral) body cavity. c. The (dorsal / ventral) cavity appears to be better protected by boney structures. d. Pleural, mediastinal, and pericardial are terms that refer to regions of the (thorax / abdominopelvis) e. The (heart / lungs / esophagus and trachea) are located in the pleural cavities. f. The division between the abdomen and the (thorax / pelvis) is marked by the diaphragm. g. The stomach, spleen, small intestine, and most of the large intestine are located in the (abdomen / pelvis). h. The urinary bladder, rectum, and internal reproductive organs are located in the (abdominal / pelvic) cavity.