Document 17868184

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Rakesh Agrawal
Technical Fellow
Search Labs, Microsoft Research – Silicon Valley
Current state of affair
Evolving search
Search labs projects
Current state of affair
Evolving Search
Search Labs projects
 Navigational Queries
 Pseudo- Navigational
Queries
Car GPS around $300
Four day trip to Bhutan from Delhi to visit
important Buddhist places
Game
Console
s
Party
Site
Search queries are not grammatically correct questions,
but they are not bags of words either
Query terms are often more than strings
of characters
Data often has structure or structure can
be derived
Search can span multiple sessions over several days
Search often provides entry point for browsing and search
and browsing are inter-mixed
Expectations from search are increasing
Current state of affair
Evolving search
Search labs projects
Health
Education
Humanity’s greatest advances are not in its
discoveries – but in how those discoveries
are applied to reduce inequity.
Bill Gates
Harvard Commencement. June 7,
2007
“Is it right? Is it just?
Is it in the interest of mankind?”
Woodrow Wilson. May 30, 1919.
Applications to benefit individuals
and society
Number of People With
Chronic Conditions (millions)
Deaths due to infectious
diseases
180
171
164
157
160
149
141
140
133
125
120
118
100
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
Year
2020
2025
2030
New Challenge: chronic conditionsillnesses and impairments expected to
last a year or more, limit what one can
do and may require ongoing care
In 2005, 133 million Americans lived
with a chronic condition (up from 118
million in 1995)
Tremendous simplification in the technologies for effortlessly
capturing useful personal information
Dramatic reduction in the cost and form factor for
personal storage
Cloud Computing
Charts for appropriate demographics?
Optimum level for Asian Indians: 150 mg/dL
(much lower than 200 mg/dL for Westerners)
Due to elevated levels of lipoprotein(a)*
Distributed computation and
selection across millions of nodes
Privacy and security
*Enas et al. Coronary Artery Disease In Asian Indians. Internet J. Cardiology. 2001.
1951
1981
2002(*)
Literacy Percentage
18.33%
43.57%
65.38%
Educational Instituions
Primary
Upper Primary
High/Hr. Seconday & Inter & Pre Junior College
209671
13596
7416
494503
118555
51573
664041
219626
133492
Enrollements (in millions)
Primary
Upper Primary
High/Hr. Seconday & Inter & Pre Junior College
19.2
3.1
1.5
73.8
20.7
11
113.9
44.8
30.5
NA
82.5
66
Teachers (in '000)
Primary
Upper Primary
High/Hr. Seconday & Inter & Pre Junior College
538
86
127
1363
669
926
1928
1157
1777
Pupil Teacher Ratio
Primary
Upper Primary
High/Hr. Seconday & Inter & Pre Junior College
20
20
21
38
33
27
43
34
34
0.64%
2.92%
4.02%
Dropout Rates (%)
Public Expenditure (% of GDP)
Significant achievements, but problems remain …
Poor performance
•
39% dropouts in primary, additional 15.6% in secondary, additional 11.7% in
higher secondary
•
Pass out ratio is 50% at Class X and majority of them pass in 3rd division
•
Less than 8% finish all schooling to qualify for a college education
Poorly trained teachers
•
51% of primary teachers are higher secondary or below
•
Only 44% have received in-service training
•
Absence of learning material for teachers to update their knowledge
Poor teacher-student ratios
•
Ratio in primary is 1:43, secondary and Higher secondary is 1:34. About 9% of primary
schools have a teacher-student ratio > 1:100
•
1.4% of primary schools have no teachers, 19% have only one teacher for all classes
Poor quality of material
•
Poor quality of textbooks, out-dated curriculum
Source: IBM Report on Improving India’s Education System through Information
Technology, 2005
Attacking Complex Problems*
Framework
Application to
Education
1. Define goal.
1. Quality education to all.
2. Find the highest-
2. New pedagogy.
leverage approach.
3. Discover the ideal
technology for
that approach.
4. In the meantime, make the
smartest application of the
technology on-hand.
3. Individualized learning with
teacher as a discussant.
4. Internet-based mass
collaboration to help
teachers teach better and
improve the
educational infrastructure.
* Bill Gates. Harvard Commencement. June 7, 2007
• Participation of experts,
teachers, parents and students
in the development and
revisions of curricula
• Sharing and collaborative
development of lectures,
assignments, tests, etc.
• Tools for capturing feedback on
textbooks (errors,
better explanations,
supplementary readings)
• Collaborative translation and
localization of educational material
Current state of affair
Evolving search
Search labs projects
Search Labs
Invent next in Internet
search and applications
computational
machine learning economics
game theory
information retrieval
query
processing
web mining algorithms
privacy
parallel mining
data
management ranking
NLP
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inconsistent
data
link
analysis
Best car GPS
around $300
Structure and
Semantics in
Data and Queries
Insights on user
behavior from
massive
data mining
From ranking to
decision making
Task-orientation
Best car GPS
around $300
Category = “Auto GPS”
Price = approx(300)
Order By ReviewRank
Symphony
Enable non-developers to create and monetize custom search applications that combine their data and
knowledge with Search services.
ShoeQueen
ShoeQueen
“Trail running shoes”
Advertising
<javascript />
submit
Search
ShoeQueen
<div id=results>
</div>
query
Query/Click
Logger
Symphony Runtime
Semi-structured
Query Processing
ShoeQueen
Data
Customer
Data
+
forum/review
pages
Web
Advertising
ShoeQueen
Config

images
Image
Advertising
Items
Advertising
1. Collect initial results
2. Add additional data
3. Generate HTML
Query
clicks
Rev Sharing
Component
ads
Data Services
Proprietary
Query,
Click,
App-ID
News
…
Video
3rd Party
Tools for creating and
updating content
(Wikipedia++)
Trust and authoritativeness
of content
Personalization of search to
find the material suitable for
one’s own style of teaching
Bootstrapping and incentives
Search is becoming
an essential “utility”
Need to develop new
foundations and
abstractions to take
search to next level
Academia can (and
must) play a
leading role
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Search Labs’ mission is to invent next in Internet search and applications
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