Coal-fired electricity generation

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Coal-fired electricity generation
1. Accounts for 39% of world electricity production – the most
important source of electricity in OECD and non-OECD.
2. Accounts for more than 50% of electricity generation in
Australia, China, India, Australia, Eastern Europe and the USA.
3. Coal expected to remain the most important source of
electricity through to 2030. Capacity will grow by 120% (twothirds of this in developing countries) – $1.3 trillion of
investment.
4. Predominantly domestic good: 3% traded.
Projected world electricity production to 2030, by fuel source
Solar/Wind
TWh
30 000
Combustible
Renewables & Waste
25 000
Geothermal
20 000
Hydro
15 000
Nuclear
10 000
Gas
5 000
Liquid Fuels
0
2002
2010
Source: World Energy Outlook 2004, IEA
2020
2030
Coal
Coal-fired electricity emissions
1. 70% of all power sector electricity and heat
emissions.
2. 15.8% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions
(22% for electricity and heat).
3. Projected to rise 60% by 2030 with developing
countries accounting for 90% of this growth.
4. Higher plant thermal efficiencies are the key to
achieving lower emissions intensities.
5. CO2 emissions intensities vary significantly: Japan’s
is 35% lower than India’s.
Coal-fired electricity generation CO2 emissions intensities by region, 2002
kg CO2/ MWh
1 200
1 100
1 000
900
800
India
East Europe
FSU
Aus/NZ
China
West
Europe
Africa
S&E Asia
Canada
Middle East
Latin
America
USA
Korea
Japan
700
Scope for progress
1. In 2002, average thermal efficiency in the OECD was
36%, in developing countries it was 30%. In 2030,
expected to rise to 40% and 36% respectively.
2. State-of-the-art pulverised plants have efficiencies as
high as 47%. IGCC (gasification) plants 50%. Thermal
efficiencies of up to 56% is believed to be possible.
3. If all regions were to achieve the same efficiency level of
Japan emissions could be reduced by 17% in 2020.
4. Major barrier to reducing emissions: capital costs.
5. Capture and storage technologies is probably 10 years
off. Major technical and cost challenges.
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