Fungi & Protist Study Guide Review Sheet

Objective – Understand that microorganisms range from simple to complex, are found almost everywhere, and are both helpful and
Fungi & Protist Study Guide Review Sheet
Science Language Students Need to Know and Use
Algae – A plant-like protest without roots, stems, or leaves.
Cilia – Small, hair-like structures used to move.
Consumer – An organism that must find and consume its food.
Decompose – To break things down into simpler materials.
Decomposers – Organisms that break down dead or decaying things into simpler substances.
Flagella – Whip-like structures used to propel an organism through water.
Fungi – A group of organisms that absorbs its nutrients from its surroundings.
Microorganisms – A living thing too small for the human eye to see.
Producers – Living things that make their own food from simple substances usually using sunlight, as plants do.
Protists – A large and various group of single-celled organisms.
Protozoa – Animal-like protists.
Pseudopod – Temporary, foot-like extensions of the cytoplasm.
Single-celled – Any living thing that has only one cell.
Fungi (Fungus singular)
Fungi are made of one or more cells. Yeast is an example of a one-celled fungus. Mushrooms and mold are
examples of many-celled fungi.
All fungi are consumers. They aren't plant or and animal. They can't eat their food. Fungi are decomposers. They
decompose their food. They absorb their food from the decomposed food. They break down once living matter.
They decompose leaves, dead trees, other organisms, etc.
We need fungi. Fungi help make food for other organisms. Fungi can't move on their own. They stay in the same
place. They can be moved by the wind or carried on an animal.
Examples of fungi include yeast, mushrooms, truffles (mushroom-like fungus that grow underground), and mold.
Harmful Fungi
You are walking through the forest and see a mushroom. Would you eat it? Your answer should be “no.”
You can eat many different types of mushrooms. But, there are many mushrooms which are poisonous. Eat it, and
you will die. Amanita phalloides, the death cap mushroom is an example of a deadly mushroom. Look at the picture.
Objective – Understand that microorganisms range from simple to complex, are found almost everywhere, and are both helpful and
Can you tell if this mushroom is poisonous? Only a mushroom expert can tell the difference. Never eat
mushrooms collected in the wild.
Fungi can make you sick in many different ways.
Some people are allergic to mold, a type of fungus.
You can get an infection from yeast. An example is thrush. You can get it on your skin or in your mouth.
Thrush gives you growths in your mouth. It is usually on your tongue or inner checks. The growths look
like “cottage cheese.” It can be painful swallowing. You can also have a fever.
Have you ever had a burning, itching growth between your toes? This is athlete’s foot. It is called athlete’s
foot because you usually get it in locker room. The locker room is warm and moist. Fungi love that
environment. You get it if you walk bare-foot to the shower. The fungus grows and the floor and gets on
your feet. It is treated with an antiseptic cream.
Other disease include respiratory disease (example – pneumonia). Another is ringworm. The fungus grows
in a raised circle on your skin. It was once believed a worm was under your skin. That’s how it got its name.
Benefits of Fungi
Fungi are used make chemicals used in manufacturing. The first antibiotic was produced by a fungus. The fungus,
Penicillium, produce penicillin.
They clean the environment. They are decomposers. They eat dead plants or animals.
They are used in pest control. They attack bacteria and insects.
They are foods we eat. Mushrooms is a fungi; truffles are fungi (mushroom-like fungus that grows underground);
the yeast used to cause dough to rise is a fungus.
They are used in food production. They are used to make…
Cheeses (the “bleu” in bleu cheese is a fungus)
Corn syrup
Soy sauce
Objective – Understand that microorganisms range from simple to complex, are found almost everywhere, and are both helpful and
Protozoans (Protists)
Protozoans are single-celled organisms. Almost all protists live in water. They can be consumers or producers.
Here are three examples of protists.
Examples of pseudopods.
The amoeba is the simplest protozoan. It is an animal-like protist. It is a consumer. The amoeba moves using a
pseudopods (false feet).
It has no shape. As it moves, its shape changes. It is clear, so you can see through it. It eats algae, bacteria, other
protozoans, and dead plant/animal matter.
Objective – Understand that microorganisms range from simple to complex, are found almost everywhere, and are both helpful and
Flagellum (Flagella plural)
The euglena is an oval-shaped, plant-like (green) protist. It is a producer. If it does not have enough light to produce
its food, it can become a consumer. When it cannot make its own food, it will eat other protists like amoeba and
The paramecium is a clear, oval-shaped protist. It is a consumer. It eats algae, bacteria, and other protozoan.
Algae are plant-like protists. They live in water. They are producers. Most are green, but some are red or brown.
They produce 50% of our oxygen. Algae are a main source of food for fish.
Algae can’t move. They are “free-floating” (go-with-the-flow). Algae can be as small as one cell to over 100 meters
Harmful Protozoans
If certain protists get into your body, they make you sick.
Giardia lamblia
A few years ago there was an outbreak of giardiasis in northern Utah. People would go swimming in public pools.
They would later get sick. Their symptoms included vomiting, fever, and diarrhea. It was so bad, the health
department closed some public pools.
Objective – Understand that microorganisms range from simple to complex, are found almost everywhere, and are both helpful and
The health department discovered what happened.
One way giardiasis is transferred is through fecal to oral contact. Mothers would bring babies to the swimming pool.
Some of the babies had giardiasis. When in the pool, they would dirty their diaper. Some of the diarrhea would get
into the water. It would spread throughout the pool. Some people would swallow the pool water. The protist would
get into their bodies, making them sick.
Public pools added more chlorine to kill the protist. They also no longer allowed babies in diapers into the pools.
Another disease caused by protists is amebiasis. This disease causes cramping and diarrhea. You might also have
bloody bowel movements.
The key to avoiding diseases caused by protists is to avoid drinking untreated water.
Benefits of Algae
The most important thing algae do is produce oxygen. Half of the oxygen in the air is produced by algae.
Algae has other uses.
 Used in livestock feed.
 Used to make cosmetics.
 Help produce prescription drugs.
 Identify possible environmental problems.
o Food production.
 Sushi.
 Growing rice
 Primarily used as a thickener.
 Ice cream
 Marshmallow
 Pudding
 Salad dressing
 Syrup