History of Computers Week 1

History of Computers
Week 1
Definition of a Computer
A computer is defined in
the following ways
 By the work it does
 By the kind of
information it handles
 By its size and price
Particulars are Moving
 Technology advances at
exponential rates
 Computer memory capacity
quadruples every 3 years?
 Computer processor speed
doubles every 3 years?
 Computer networks - number of
hosts doubles every year
Computer Networks
 Network - two or more
connected computers
 Purpose - sharing or exchange
of information and/or
 Benefits
 improved efficiency
 reduces need for travel…
Computers and Networks
 Facilitate
 Concentration of knowledge and
 Distribution of knowledge and control
 Have the power to
 Amass and interrogate enormous
volumes of data
 Process data at enormous rates for
real systems and simulations
Computers and Networks
Constitutional definitions
Social structures
Lifestyle options
What is a Society?
 A voluntary association of
individuals for common ends
 An enduring and cooperating social
group whose members have
developed organized patterns of
relationships through interaction
with one another
 A companionship with one’s
What is a Society?
 A part of a community that is a unit
distinguishable by particular aims
or standards of living or conduct
 The sum of human conditions and
activity regarded as a whole
functioning interdependently
 The customs and organization of
an ordered community
How have Computers
Affected Society?
What are the parts of a
What has been the affect of
computers on these parts?
 What are the benefits?
 What are the problems?
 What will happen next?
What about the Internet?
In recent years this one
area has affected society
more than any other
What are the issues here?
The Parts of a Society
Private Sector
The Parts of a Society
Currency (banking)
Anything else?
Technological Revolutions
Agricultural Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Computational Revolution
Revolution Comparison
Workforce distribution
Productivity benefits
Breadth of impact
Early Calculating
Slide rule
Mechanical calculator
Stepped reckoner
Textile industry - Jacquard
Difference engine
Early Calculating
Machines through those
of today
Analytical engine
The 1890 Census machine
The transistor
The Personal Computer
The Internet
5 Generations of Modern
 1st Generation 1945 - 1956
 Made to order operating
 Different binary coded programs
told it how to operate
 Difficult to program and limited
versatility and speed
 Vacuum tubes
 Magnetic drum storage
2nd Generation 19551963
Memory - magnetic core
Assembly language
Printers and memory
Programming languages
3rd Generation 1964 1971
Quartz clock
Integrated circuit
Operating systems
4th Generation 1971 now
LSI - Large Scale
VLSI- Very Large Scale
Integration (ULSI)
General consumer usage
5th Generation
This is the future
What will it be like?
What changes will be big
enough to create this new
Pioneers of Computing
 Charles
 Konrad Zuse
 John von
 Alan Turing
 Steve Jobs
Important Machines
 IBM 700 Series
 IBM 360/370
 CDC star
 Cray 1
 Apple McIntosh
Taxonomy of Computers
Don’t Forget the Chip
 Computers are used in many
different technologies
 For example: bread
machine, ATM, cars, TV,
microwave, cash register,
 How has this utilization
affected society?
Wirth’s Law
The software gets slower
faster than the hardware
gets faster
What does this mean?
How Society Reacts to
Incorporate benefits
Civilize change
Compensate injured
Regain balance
ATM Example
 Positive
 Negative
 Unemployment
 Alienation and customer service
 Crime
 Loss of privacy
 Errors
Reconsider the Problems
 Unemployment -> more computer
 Alienation -> go during business
 Crime -> add lights, change
Weigh the positive against the
Solutions to Problems
Market mechanisms
Issues to be Studied Due
to Computers in Society
Privacy of communications
Intellectual property
Constitutional issues
General social issues
Professional ethics