Thesis’s Defense: Empirical Risk Analysis of Grape Production in the Fallon Area, Nevada Miguel Henry Department of Resource Economics University of Nevada, Reno December 2005 Determine which production alternative is stochastically more risk efficient Give to the decision makers the information required to make an informed decision Presentation Overview Introduction Motivations behind research Research objectives Data Model Charlie Frey Vineyard, Fallon, NV, 2005 Empirical Results & Implications Conclusions Motivations behind this research Environmental Climatic Reasons Political Multiple Use Reasons Economic Reasons Environmental Climatic Reasons Limited Water Supply - Extended droughts since 1987 - Decrease in the Sierra snow pack Political Multiple Use Reasons Reduction in Irrigation Water for Fallon - Recovery Pyramid Lake level - Maintenance Truckee River flows * Re-establish endemic fish species * Protect water quality * Protect recreation & sport fishing - Protection Wetlands * Recreation, fisheries & wildlife (Recreation is a big business for Native Americans) Changes in Water Allocation A ctual A rea Irrigated (acres) 65000 - Reduction of irrigated acres - Loss of farming - Low profits - Land conversion to other uses 62500 60000 57500 55000 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 Years Actual acres irrigated in the Fallon area by year, 1983 – 1992 Economic Reason Actual water use by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (Continue…) Alfalfa is a perennial legume It lives more than 2 years It is in production for 5 – 10 years It uses 3.5 – 4.5 acre feet of water/year To produce 1 acre of alfalfa/year Farmers use 1 - 1.5 million gallons of water In terms of irrigated acreage: Much of the land in Fallon is irrigated and farmed as baled hay, using alfalfa 50,000 irrigated acres Risky climate and soils for other crops (Continue…) In short: Scarce water Changes in water allocation Conversion of irrigated lands into nonfarming uses Actual water use by alfalfa Low profits for farmers Strategies Strategies Preserve agriculture Benefit community Protect Nevada’s most valuable natural resource – Water Conversion of Water Rights More water efficient and profitable crops that consume less water/acre/season compared to alfalfa hay production Example: Wine Grapes (Vitis vinifera) Experiences in Nevada? Technically is feasible to grow “quality wines” in northwestern Nevada In terms of water savings: 3.5 – 4.5 acre feet / year 42 – 54 inches of water /acre/year 0.27 acre feet / year 4 inches of water/acre/year Crop Conversion What is the Percentage Saving in Water from Alfalfa to Grapes? 90 – 93% The underlying topic is water! (Continue…) Experience in economic terms? To date there is no research that explains the economic feasibility of this industry in Nevada No studies have investigated the risk implicit in wine grape production (Continue…) Research Objective “Provide a better understanding of the economic viability of alfalfa hay versus wine grape production by using probabilistic & stochastic efficiency analyses” Specific Objectives Characterize price and yield risks associated with alfalfa hay to those of Chardonnay and Merlot wine grapes grown in Fallon, NV Derive probability distributions of Present Net Returns Values Determine which crop is stochastically risk efficient (Input) Data Most important constraint Planning horizon of 10 years Historical data, average data, and maximum and minimum values Different sources (CA, WA, ID, NV) Experts and growers Data: Prices ($/ton) Yields (tons/acre) Variable and Fixed Costs ($/acre) Model Stochastic Simulation Models Characterize the risk Derive the cumulative distribution functions of present net return values for each crop Derive risk efficient production practices Planning horizon of 10 years 500 iterations Stochastic Simulation Model Input Data: Price & Yield Economic Costs Stochastic Budgeting Model: ~ ~ ~ Rit Pit *Yit ~ ~ VCit Cit FCit Yit * Pit ~ ~ ~ Nit Rit Cit Empirical distribution: - Capture intra-temporal and inter-temporal correlation effects - Generate correlated stochastic errors GRK distribution: -Minimum value -Most likely value -Maximum value Stochastic Present Net Return Value Stochastic Simulation Model Simulation Phase Stochastic Present Net Return Values Random variable on which decisions will depend 500 iterations Probability (%) Cumulative Distribution Function: Present Net Return Value ($/acre) 1 1 0.8 0.8 Probabilitty (%) Probabillity (%) Stochastic Results PV_Alfalfa 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -1500 -1000 -500 0.4 0.2 0 0 0 5000 Present Net Return Values ($/acre) 10000 0.8 PV_Merlot 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2000 15000 Present Net Return Values ($/acre) 1 Probabilitty (%) -2000 PV_Chardonnay 0.6 4000 6000 8000 Present Net Return Values ($/acre) 10000 12000 20000 Outcomes: -$1,673 to $18,190 Alfalfa Hay Probabilitty (%) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -5000 Alfalfa has the largest minimum Merlot Chardonnay has the largest maximum Chardonnay 0 5000 10000 15000 Present Net Return Values ($/acre) 20000 P≤$5,000/acre = 2.4% for Chardonnay 3.6% for Merlot P>$10,000/acre = 42% for Chardonnay 0% for Merlot Stochastic Results Deterministic Results Alfalfa Hay Probabilitty (%) 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -5000 Alfalfa Hay: -$1,441/acre Chardonnay: $7,709/acre Merlot: $2,055/acre Merlot Chardonnay is the best alternative Chardonnay 0 5000 10000 15000 Present Net Return Values ($/acre) 20000 This outcome is not robust enough for actual decision making in a risky economic environment! Stochastic Efficiency with Bounds of Risk Aversion 12,000.00 Chardonnay 10,000.00 ($/acre) 8,000.00 Efficient Set! 6,000.00 M e rlot 4,000.00 Alfalfa Hay 2,000.00 NR SRA ERA MRA 0.00 0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 -2,000.00 Absolute Risk Aversion Coefficients 0.001 Utility-Weighted Risk Premiums 12,000.00 Chardonnay 10,000.00 ($/acre) 8,000.00 Merlot 6,000.00 Minimum sure amount of money that would have to be paid to a ERA decision maker 4,000.00 Alfalfa Hay 2,000.00 NR SRA MRA ERA 0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 Absolute Risk Aversion Coefficients 0.001 Conclusions Before suggesting alternative production methods, stochastic efficiency analyses should be employed whenever research is addressed for the development of new practices. Probability of producing positive present net return values with Chardonnay and Merlot is 100%, with alfalfa hay 0%. Growing wine grapes, especially Chardonnay, is stochastically the most risk efficient production alternative. Alfalfa hay is the least profitable and most risky alternative. Growing wine grapes represents an excellent agricultural crop production alternative in Fallon, Nevada.