Becker 1 Connor Becker Dr. Tanik CS360 5 December 2011 CPS: Past, Present, Future, and Me What are cyberphysical systems (CPS)? There are varied definitions of CPS: the University of California at Berkeley's CHESS program defines it as “integrations of computation and physical processes” (CPS 1); Wikipedia's original article emphasizes the “tight combination of, and coordination between” the components of such systems (Cyberphysical system, 1); the CPSWeek website is quoted as giving the CPS Integration Diagram definition, “Cyber-physical systems are... integrated by a computing and communication core embedded in all types of objects and structures in the physical environment” (qtd. in Xie 5). Where did CPS come from? The University of Pennsylvania hosted a class on CPS in 2009, taught in a lecture format by Insup Lee, a professor at the university and head of the PRECISE Center (a CPS research center hosted at the university). The slide show from the first lecture points to three trends leading to the rise of CPS: (1) that Moore's Becker 2 Law is causing the cost of using embedded processing in applications to decrease leading to more widespread use; (2) “isolation has cost”, namely that many small devices in communication can have a great cost benefit over isolated singular systems; and (3) that “the exponential proliferation of embedded systems is not matched by a corresponding increase in human ability to consume information”. CPS is the “convergence of computation, communication, and control”. (Lee, 5) What is the state of CPS today? The exciting topic in CPS in the present is just that: CPS. Defining exactly what CPS means is a large part in understanding the future impact of CPS on the world. Many organizations host conferences and workshops around the world, allowing scientists and researchers and dignitaries meet face-to-face, talking about the future of CPS. One such workshop is University of West Virginia CPS Lab, site of the ICCPS CPSWeek, sponsored by the ACM 2009 Conference and IEEE; it has been held annually since 2009, this year being hosted in Beijing. As part of that workshop, the Third Internation Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, or ICCPS, will be held. (“Third International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems”, 1) Where is CPS going? Becker 3 The National Science Foundation, on its official grant guidelines web page, states that they “envision that the cyberphysical systems of tomorrow will far exceed those of today in terms of adaptability, autonomy, efficiency, functionality, reliability, safety, and usability”. They have begun looking for research projects that “contribute to new Cyber-Physical Systems science”, awarding up to one million dollars for teams of researchers across universities for each of up to five years of research. (Funding, 1, 3, 5) There has been a large amount of investment in CPS around the world and according to the CPS Steering Group's Executive Summary document, it is critical for the United States to invest heavily in new information technology—they say that the Union's current lead of the world in advanced technology will not necessarily easily translate into future advancement. They say that this is important because in the near future, the vast majority of industries will include cyber-physical components; from smart planes and cars to biomedical equipment, from power grids to agriculture, nextgeneration networked embedded systems will be ubiquitous. Physical Systems Executive Summary, 4). What is my future in CPS? (Cyber- Becker 4 I didn't sign on for a computer science degree to enter the cyber-physical systems industry, but the fact remains that more than likely, whatever I do will involve these next-generation networked embedded systems. At the beginning of the class, our instructor asked us to list five things that interested us in the field of computers—where we wanted to be and what we wanted to be working on in five years. One of my major interests that I hadn't really given much thought to was human-computer interaction, specifically voice driven operating and digital organization systems; systems that were more natural to use and would allow computers and humans to work together on problems rather than having a strictly demarcated line between the creative and the computational. Touch input seems to be trendy at the moment, but I envision the blending of touch and voice recognition input systems in the future and certainly of voice output systems. I can Apple's Newton Messagepad 2000, one of the most advanced interfaces of the 90s imagine asking HAL, my imagined smart-house's central mainframe to “open the front door” as well as organize my project date into integrated projects. I await the day when the home desktops (and laptops) are gone, removed and replaced with more “discreet technology”: coffee tables that double as digital coffee table books, Becker 5 voice recognition so that one could move from room to room communicating with the central closet-based computer via microphone and have one's work follow on any screen, desks that can also be true writing tables (for members of older generations that prefer writing over keyboard input). If CPS are going to be everywhere, then they're going to be everywhere we want to be. Becker 6 Works Cited "Cps." Chess - Center for Hybrid and Embedded Software Systems. UC Berkeley, 2011. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://chess.eecs.berkeley.edu/cps/>. CPS Integration Diagram. Digital image. IS252-Introduction to Computer Design. University of California, Irvine. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ics.uci.edu/~eli/courses/seminar-s10/seminars10.html>. "Cyber-physical System." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-physical_system>. Cyber-Physical Systems Executive Summary. Publication. CPS Steering Group. Print. "Funding - Cyber-Physical Systems." Nsf.org - Funding - CyberPhysical Systems - US National Science Foundation (NSF). US National Science Foundation, 26 Oct. 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=503286>. Lee, Adriana. Apple Newton Messagepad 2000. Digital image. Using the Apple Newton For Twitter | TechnoBuffalo. TechnoBuffalo, 10 June 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <http://www.technobuffalo.com/internet/social-networking/usingthe-apple-newton-for-twitter/>. Becker 7 Lee, Insup. "CIS 480/CIS 899: Embedded and Cyber Physical Systems." Lecture. Embedded and Cyber Physical Systems. University of Pennsylvania, 15 Jan. 2011. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~lee/09cis480/lectures.html>. "Third International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems." Third International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. ICCPS. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://iccps2012.cse.wustl.edu/>. Univ. West Virginia CPS Lab. Digital image. CPSL Announcements. University of West Virginia, 1 Apr. 2010. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <http://www.csee.wvu.edu/~yfallah/events.html>. Xie, Jingquan. "Cyber-Physical System (CPS)." Missing or Missing? 13 Apr. 2011. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://mmquan.blogspot.com/2011/04/cyber-physical-systemcps.html>.