Traits, Five Factor Model • Based on lexical approach

```Traits, Five Factor Model
• Based on lexical approach
– Important individual differences among people
will have names
– Should be words describing the same traits in
different languages if there are common traits
– In English over 5000 words
– Can a few dimensions capture these many
traits?
Factor analysis
• Statistical tool used to reduce large
amounts of data to smaller underlying
dimensions
• Looks at patterns of co-variation
• Method is important because it impacts
findings
Factor analysis method
1. Collect measurements
2. Compute correlations – matrix
3. Factor extraction (reduce to underlying
dimensions)
5. Name the factors
Example: How people cope with
stress
• How much did you do ______ during your most recent
stressful event? Or rate each item:
• 1. Took action quickly, before things could get out of
hand.
• 2. Refused to believe it was real.
• 3. Did something concrete to make the situation better.
• 4. Tried to convince myself that it wasn=t happening.
• 5. Went on thinking that things were just like they were.
• 6. Changed or grew as a person in a new way.
• 7. Tried to look at the bright side.
Hypothetical correlation matrix
Item 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
.1
.75
-.05
.03
.12
0
*
-.19
.52
.61
-.07
-.08
*
.17
0
.11
.08
*
.71
.09
.04
*
.16
.09
*
.59
2
3
4
5
6
7
*
*
Factor
A
B
C
Item 1
.62
.15
.01
Item 2
.03
-.08
.49
Item 3
.54
.04
-.20
Item 4
.10
.11
.56
Item 5
.07
.08
.45
Item 6
-.02
.66
.12
Item 7
.22
.48
.06
Implications
• Garbage in, garbage out
• Missing info. may mean missing factors
E.g. Escape: smoking, drinking, eating,
• Importance of names of factors
Big Five/Five-Factor Model
•
•
Emerging consensus that 5 dimensions
capture important pieces of personality
Based on:
1. Diverse samples of data
2. Different measures
3. Multiple cultures and languages
•
Still some disagreement about What the
factors are
Big Five (Costa &amp; McCrae)
•
•
Five basic dimensions that are very broad
6 facets within each dimension (which are
more specific
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Neuroticism
Extraversion
Openness to Experience
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Neuroticism
• Tendency to experience negative
(unpleasant) feelings
• Emotionally reactive, intense
• On other end: calm, emotionally stable,
free from persistent negative feelings
Neuroticism Facets
Anxiety – sense of danger or threat
1.
•
2.
3.
Tense, jittery, nervous …calm, fearless
Anger
Depression – feel sad, dejected, low
•
Lack energey, feel dejected….free from depressive feelings
Self-consciousness – sensitive to what others think of them
4.
•
feel uncomfortable around others, easily embarrassed….don’t feel
discomfort in social situations, don’t fear being judged by others
Immoderation – strong cravings and urges that are hard to resist
Vulnerability – susceptibility to stress
5.
6.
•
Feel panic, helpless under pressure….feel poised, confident under
pressure
Extraversion
• Enjoy being with others
• High energy
• Tendency to experience positive emotions
• Low scorers:
– Quiet, less engaged in social world
– NOT shyness or depression
Extraversion Facets
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Friendliness
•
like others and easily reach out to other people…distant and
reserved
Gregariousness
•
Enjoy being around others, like crowds…need more privacy and
time to self, dislike crowds
Assertievness
•
Like to speak out, take charge, leaders…let others control group
direction
Activity Level
•
Much action, energetic, quick…slower paced, less activity
Excitement-Seeking
•
Easily bored, seek thrills…unlikely to take risks, adverse to thrillseeking
Cheerfulness
•
High on positive emotions such as happiness, optimism,
enthusiasm, and joy…low scores don’t’ experience as much joy
(but NOT depressed)
Openness To Experience
• Most disagreement about what this factor
is and what to call it.
• Imaginative, intellectually curious,
sensitive to aesthetics and feelings ….
Down to earth, practical,conventional
• Not a measure of intelligence
Openness Facets
1.
Imagination
•
2.
Artistic Interests
•
3.
Like new activities, experience different things…prefer familiar
things
Intellect
•
6.
Awareness of and expression of feelings…less aware and
expressive
•
5.
Love beauty, aesthetics…not interested in arts
Emotionality
•
4.
Fantasy…fact
Like to play with ideas…prefer concrete things over ideas
Liberalism
•
Challenge authority and convention…prefer conventional
approaches
Conscientiousness
• Deliberate in actions, controlled, planful
• Low: impulsive
Conscientiousness Facets
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Self-efficacy
Orderliness
Dutifulness
Achievement Striving
Self-discipline
Cautiousness
Agreeableness
• Social harmony, ability to get along with
others
• Low: mistrustful of others, difficulty getting
along with others
Agreeableness Facets
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Trust
Morality
Altruism
Cooperation
Modesty
Sympathy
Integration with other trait theories
1. Eysenck’s theory:
2. Similar structure to Eysenck
3. Cattell’s 16 PF scales map on
Longitudinal Stability
1. Good evidence for stability over long periods in