Creative Industries and Creative Communities
Institute for Environment, Sustainability and Regeneration
Staffordshire University, 11 th November 2009
Chair in Cultural Industries firstname.lastname@example.org
– Huddersfield Creative Town
– Creative Yorkshire (2000-2002)
– 40+ strategic and practical projects in UK and abroad
(RDAs, DCMS, British Council,
• Director, Creative Industries
Development Agency (2000present).
– From Huddersfield to the world
Design and deliver programs of mentoring, network development, skills and leadership development to business, community, citizens and artists
– New focus – creativity and innovation in service delivery
CRECE, Manizales, Colombia 2005
The Creative Industries : Are we becoming sceptical?
1. Questions about the availability of robust and appropriate evidence
2. Questions about the instrumentalisation of culture
3. Questions about the social value of creative industries employment
Are we in danger of throwing out the baby with the bath-water?
Do we need a new stand-point?
Where might one come from?
1. Whether we like it or not, mobilising culture and creativity for regeneration or development is an inherently political process
– and the politics have gone awry
2. There is a lot to be learned from the UK experience, despite valid critiques of some of the arguments
3. The arguments about the value of culture and creativity are not dependent on data – reality moves faster than data
4. The future of creative industries, creative communities depends on: knowledge, experience, some data but most important of all - getting the right mix of intervention at the right level
Country % GDP/GVA % Employment % GDP Growth pa
Sources: DCMS, WIPO, NZ Institute of Economic Research, Stephen Siwek, Allen Consulting Group, Taiwan Institute of Economic Research.
………..A reminder of where we came from?
1. Social democratic cultural policy
2. Connecting culture to enterprise
3. Community development objectives
Greater London Council
Greater London Enterprise Board
Promotion of co-operative enterprise
Application to arts and culture
1. Infra-structure strategies
2. Attention to working environments
3. Basic clustering model
4. Culture intrinsic to urban development
Local cultural production strategies: Sheffield, Red
Tape Studios and the Cultural Industries Quarter
“This cultural policy is also an economic policy. Culture creates wealth.
Broadly defined, our cultural industries generate 13 billion dollars a year.
Culture employs. Around 336,000 Australians are employed in culture-related industries. Culture adds value, it makes an essential contribution to innovation, marketing and design. It is a badge of our industry. The level of our creativity substantially determines our ability to adapt to new economic imperatives. It is a valuable export in itself and an essential accompaniment to the export of other commodities. It attracts tourists and students. It is essential to our economic success”
Creative Nation: A Commonwealth Cultural Policy, Australia, 1994
Available at: http://www.nla.gov.au/creative.nation/contents.html
Don’t need to be shy about connecting culture to wealth creation
Creative entrepreneurship: Richard
7 economic properties
1.The nobody knows anything principle
2.The art for art sake principle (craft, skill, virtuosity)
3.The motley crew principle (project orientated with flexible, inter-changeable staff (Film industry one of the earliest, advertising, but also now more traditional art-forms)
4.Product infinite variety
– the ‘batch’ principle, short production runs, customisation, personalisation – ‘flexible-specialisation’
(Piore and Sabel)
5.A List/B List principle – personalised branding, small differences in skill mean big differences in economic return
6.The time flies principle
– time does literally mean money
7.The ars longa principle
– some works achieve/maintain value long after their production – allowing economic rents to be derived from them.
1. Encouraged focused attention on need for intelligence and knowledge
See Richard Caves (2000) Contracts between art and commerce.
Also see Henry, C (2007) Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: international perspectives (especially Chapters 4 and 7)
The creative industries…
……..er, or is it creative economy…..?
1. Importance of definitions and data
Markets and audiences
1. Understand the value of a localities cultural and creative attributes
Ideas into practice
Platforms for delivery
Networking and circulating
: Wood, P & Taylor, C ‘Big ideas for a small town: the Huddersfield creative town initiative’, Local economy, Vol. 19
Location & transport connections
Huddersfield’s built environment
(heritage & conversion uses)
Competitive property prices
Well established sector-specific agencies
Critical mass of businesses
Physical & virtual hubs to anchor and animate SME base
Raised profile of Kirklees in region
Strengths in key disciplines at HE & FE
Supply of well skilled labour
Formal & non-formal routes to employment established
Individual sector champions
Weak overall local demand
Particularly in higher value / more challenging segments
Questions over political will to engage in strategic projects
Industrial base relatively narrow (in activity, source of demand, business model)
Makes cluster vulnerable to volatility of business cycle
Weaknesses of mainstream business support compared with other sub-regions
Negative image abides in some quarters of the region (corporate market and the media)
Leadership & Partnership
Low level of joint working across the sector
Lack of focal point for promoting the sector
Perceived loss of momentum
Competitive Dynamics of Diversifying Business Base Factor Conditions
Grow micros into small firms
Develop non-Books & Press segments
Encourage IP-based businesses
Improve robustness & sustainability
Building on Success
Sector upbeat about future prospects
Further potential to be unlocked
Kirklees can build on regional
Rising property costs
Pressure on availability of suitable property
Potential business climate/image as a centre for ‘lifestyle’ businesses
UK Print & Publishing
Sector heavily dependent on
P&P for jobs & wealth creation
Local future in part contingent on spatial restructuring
potential investors & partners comparative advantage of
Competition from the Rest of the Region
Huddersfield’s creative industries: a swot analysis (2002)
Provide more unified front to Potential change of attitude in Leeds towards early stage companies
End of ESF & ERDF
End of current funding round
3. Policy levers
Source: Anamaria Wills, Creative Industries Development Agency
1. Workspace expansion programme
2. External marketing –
‘created in China’
3. Local production clusters
Simple and transformational
1. The most impressive exercise in urban creativity
1. Recognising fragility, delicacy
Tactical and Practical:
The Storey Creative
Complex and Invisible
Factory 798, Beijing,
1. The beginnings of a grassroots culture of creative production
Complex and Invisible: Access-space
Free media lab
Open access learning community
From e-consumers to digital producers
1. Re-designing creative economics
Creativity re-discovering culture?
Cunningham, S. (2004) ‘The creative industries after cultural policy: a genealogy and some possible preferred futures’. International journal of cultural studies, Vol 7(1),
Henry, C. (ed.) (2007). Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: An international perspective. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Kong, L. & O’Connor, J. (eds.) (2009) Creative economies, creative cities: Asianeuropean perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer.
Oakley, K. (2004) ‘Not so cool britannia: the role of the creative industries in economic development’. International journal of cultural studies, Vol7(1) 67-77.
Scott, A.J. (2005). Creative cities: conceptual issues and policy questions. Paper presented at OECD International Conference on City Competitiveness, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain 3-4 March 2005.
Wood, P. and Taylor, C. (2004). ‘Big ideas for a small town: the Huddersfield creative town initiative’. Local economy, Vol. 19 (4).