______________________ forces Political forces Economic forces

Chapter 1:
Fashion Development
Fashion is a reflection of…
 ______________________ forces
 Economic forces
 Political forces
 ______________________ forces
France, the Center of Fashion
French Fashion Terms
-made: apparel made to a customer’s special order;
cut and fitted to individual measurements; the opposite of ready-to-wear
(koo-tour’): The art of dressmaking
(koo-tu-ree-ay’): Male designer
(koo-tu-ree-air): Female designer
Fashion Dictated by Royalty
 _________ main classes: Wealthy landowners or poor laborers and
 Royalty set fashion trends
 Court of _____________________________________
o The importance of dress to the wealthy
o _________________________ – Official Court Minister of Fashion
o Surrounding industries
o The French Revolution (1789)
: knot of ribbons or other
circular/oval-shaped symbol
Fashion Dictated by Royalty
 __________________________________ became business forces
directing salons staffed with seamstresses and tailors
 Couture became a bridge between the class-structured fashion of the
past and the democratized fashion of today
 International market for _______________________ high fashion grew
 Couturiers were the major fashion influence for more than _______ years
Key Designers
 __________________________
 Jeanne Paquin
 Madeleine Cheruit
 __________________________
 John Redfern
 __________________________
 Jeanne-Marie Lanvin
Folk costume
 Arises from the underclass
 Very elaborate _______________________ (second-hand) clothing for
special occasions were passed from one generation to another.
o Varies with country and within the country
o Distinguishes where you _________________________ from
Industrial Revolution Inventions
 The Textile Industry
o 1733 John Kay
o 1789 Samuel Slater
 _________________
 Immigrates from
o 1764 James Hargreaves
 Spinning jenny
with memorized
o 1769 Richard Arkwright
o 1814 Francis Cabot Lowell
 Water frame
 _________________
o 1785 Edmund Cartwright
, integrated factory
 _________________
After the Civil War
 Textile industry relocated to the _________________, the source of
 Southern states also provided other incentives such as
 Eventually the South was the textile production center in the United
Why the importance of the middle class?
Late 18th Century (Post-Industrial Revolution):
 Extra money to spend
 Desire to demonstrate wealth
o Fashion becomes a “_____________________________________”
 Desire to be perceived as respectable leads to development of the
 Now able to influence fashion trends
Establishment of the Business Suit
 Until ____________ men’s and women’s fashions had equal amounts
of detail.
 Men’s clothing was custom-made by _________________
o Some _______________-made clothing was made in the 1700s in
o In America, tailors constructed ready-made suits for sailors for
when they came on land
o At first, tailors cut the fabrics and bundled the pieces and then
sent them off to homes to be sewn by hand
(_____________________________________ process)
 Tailors then became retailers with factory shops in seaport cities
 In 1818 New York- ________________________ started the men’s
clothier business that became ________________________________
o Abraham Lincoln bought an overcoat for his second inauguration
from Brooks Brothers.
The Sewing Machine
 1829 Barthelemy Thimmonier
o __________________________________________
 1846 Elias Howe
o ____________________________ (patented)
 1859 Isaac Singer
o _________________________ mass production
Mass Production of Clothing
 ___________________________________o Opened a dry goods store in California after the gold rush
o In ________, he began to manufacture long-wearing pants with
riveted pockets that used a touch of cotton fabric called
 Civil War Uniforms-
o The Union army recorded the ______________________________
measurements of over a million soldiers to come up with the first
standardization of sizes (S, M, L, etc.)
o After the war, sewing machines and uniform sizing promoted the
mass production of everyday men’s wear.
Women’s Fashions and Social Changes
 Rigid differences between the roles of the sexes.
 Women:
o Constraining garments characteristic of their restricted lifestyles
and obedience to their husbands and fathers.
o No right to own anything except their clothing
 3 basic garments for women
Women’s Separates Mass Production
 Separates were introduced in the __________________
 Hemlines and waistlines were easily adjusted
o Making it possible for the working- or middle-class women to add a
variety to her wardrobe by mixing separates
 _________________________________________-illustrator in the 1890s
19th Century Retailing
 Traveling merchants brought clothes to fairs and
o Expensive items were only shown to the wealthy
o Prices were not marked; you could bargain your way to a good price
 2 types of stores:
o ____________________________________ Stores
o Specialty Stores
The Department Store
 1826: Samuel ____________ and George Washington _______________
opened the first ____________________________ store in NYC
 ____________________________ (New York)
 Harrod’s of London, 1849, established by Henry Harrod
o Started as a small grocery store
o _____________, 100 employees and became the largest department
Early Mail-Order Merchandising
 1800s, ____________ of the population lived in rural areas
 Satisfaction guaranteed or your money back
o _____________________________________________________
 1886, Richard Sears
o _____________________________________________________
The First Fashion Magazines
 Communications:
o Fashion Magazines
 ____________________________________ -1867
 ____________________ - 1894
 What is the effect?
o Women become aware of new styles
o Desire to wear new styles ____________________
o Rate of fashion change ______________________
o The demand for more new looks ______________________
Growth of Leisure Activities
 Sports participation
o _______________________ specific apparel is needed
 Bicycling
 Swimming
 Horse-riding
o Swimwear becomes practical
o Pants for women- ____________________________________
Garment Industry Growth
 New York City
o Immigrants with skills, need job
o __________________________________: hours, conditions, wages
o 1914 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
 _______ hour week
 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
o __________ deaths
o Public indignation
o Better ______________________ conditions
World War I
 ___________________ America entered the war
 Women start to enter workforce, need appropriate clothing
 A trend towards ____________________________ in women’s fashion
 WWI factory work leads to increased practicality in clothing
o ________________________ discarded
o Hemlines rise
o Skirts _______________________
Designers of the Era
 Paul Poiret
o _________________________________________
 Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel
o The ____________________ look
 Jean Patou
o The ____________________ look
Retail Expansion in the Early 20th Century
 Early 20th century
o Bergdorf Goodman and _______________________________in
New York and Nieman Marcus in Dallas concentrated on solely the
finest fashion and ________________________________________
 1900’s
o ________________________________ enters retailing as an owner
 1920’s
o Suburban Retail Centers
 1930’s
o First ___________________________ as presidents of retail firms
o Dorothy Shaver (Lord & Taylor) mentions American designers in ads
The Depression and Fashion
 First, a look at what is happening
o 12.8 million are unemployed
o 50% of banks fail
o _______% of garment factories fail
 An escape from reality: _________________________________
o Americans attend films 1-2 times a week
o See __________________________ fashions
o Gilbert Adrian leading _________________ designer
Important Designers
 Elsa Schiaparelli
o ____________________________ interest
o Trendsetter of the 1930s
 James Mainbocher
o First successful ____________________________ designer in
o Wedding dress for ___________________________________
World War II
 Closure of __________________________ design houses
 American designers come to forefront
 Wartime _______________________________
 Fashion is stable
 Claire McCardell: The _____________________________ Look
Postwar Fashion
Population migration and the ____________________________
o Emphasis on home and casual clothes
 Retailers move to suburbs: the Mall
o Finding fashion faster
o ______________________________________
Christian Dior: _______________________________
Christobal Balenciaga: the master of tailors
o Jacqueline Kennedy
o _________________________________
The Youthful 1960s
 British Influences
o Mary Quant
o Zandra Rhodes
o Jean Muir
 The “ _________________” look
 ____________________________________
 Increased interest in men’s fashion
 Youthfulness had negative effect on couture
Revival of Men’s Fashion
 English Mod look affected men’s fashion
 Men became more concerned with their roles outside work and with
leisure dressing
 Pierre Cardin
o Contract for men’s shirts and ties in 1959
o ________________________________________ department store
Fashion Business and Retailing
 1960s saw the last _________________________ fashion for 20 years
o Small, family owned fashion businesses closed
 Some merged or were purchased by large corporations
 Some flourished with the economy through stocks
 Boutiques grew in population
o ___________________________________ opened his first boutique
o Boutiques brought a freshness to retailing
 Ethnic and Folk looks predominate
 Physical fitness fashion
 Women go to work and __________________________________ begins
 Preppy Look and designer jeans
 ________________________, Halston, Geoffrey Beene, Ralph Lauren,
Mary Mc Fadden
 Consolidation among manufacturers and retailers
 Still dressing for success: the ‘_________________________’
 Influential designers
o _________________________ (Milan)
o Takada (Japan)
o Miyake (Japan)
 Lady Diana Spenser
 International recognition for American Designers
o Calvin Klein
1980’s Industry Trends
 Use of ____________:
 Growth of designer and brand names through licensing
 Overstored America
 Growth of mail order/catalogs
 Value orientation of consumers
o _______________________________
 Retailers consolidate, enter into bankruptcy
 ____________________________ affects imports
 Grunge Look is an anti-fashion statement
 Menswear market seeks tremendous growth
The 21st Century
 Competition is tougher more than ever
 Fashion can be the same all over the world
 _________________________________________ are the fashion leaders
 American consumers are buying fewer pieces of clothing
 Imports are increasing (___________________)
 Retail mergers continue