Items for Review and Reteach Two Party System, Republic,

Items for Review and Reteach
What type of government do we have in the United States? Two Party System, Republic,
or Federal System (federalism), or Representative democracy
What were the influences on our government? The Magna Carta, English Common Law,
and Parliament (legislature)
1215 The Magna Carta—protected the nobles privileges and upheld their authority,
granted rights that included equal treatment under the law and trial by one’s peers, and it
limited the power of the monarch by guaranteeing that no one would be above the law,
not even the king or queen.
The French & Indian War left Great Britain in debt, therefore, they felt they had to raise
taxes on their colonies in America to help pay for this debt. The colonist resented being
taxed, especially since they had no representatives in the British Parliament. “No taxation
without representation” –This led to the fight for independence. Thomas Jefferson is
credited for writing the Declaration of Independence using the ideas of John Locke from
his Second Treatise of Government in which he writes good gov’t is based on a social
contract between the people and the rulers. (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
The Articles of Confederation was the 1st Constitution—but its flaws, i.e. no power to
tax, no power to regulate trade, no power to enforce laws….. (Shay’s Rebellion over state
taxes) –led to the Constitutional Convention 1787 they went to Philadelphia to revise the
Articles of Confederation and then decided to write a whole new plan of gov’t
James Madison came up with the Virginia Plan—3 branches with a 2-house legislature
based on population (he is also considered the father of the constitution—because he
played a leading role in shaping the constitution and he supported it by writing many of
the Federalist Papers)
William Paterson of New Jersey proposed The New Jersey Plan –3 branches with a one
house legislature based on equal representation—each state receiving one vote
Roger Sherman of Connecticut proposed The Connecticut Plan later known as The Great
Compromise –3 branches of gov’t with a 2-house legislature one based on equal
representation and one based on population
Principles Underlying the Constitution—Popular Sovereignty, Rule of Law, Separation
of Powers, Checks and Balances, & Federalism
What are considered to be the first political parties? The Federalist and the Antifederalist
Alexander Hamilton is seen as the 1st Federalist—he argues for a strong central gov’t
Thomas Jefferson is seen as the 1st Antifederalist—he argues against Hamilton and for
states’ rights
(Antifederalist believed the Constitution gave the national gov’t too much power and they
were concerned because it did not have a Bill of Rights at first)
Economics—the study of how individuals and nations make choices about ways to use
scarce resources to fulfill their needs and wants.
In 1776 Adam Smith, a Scottish philosopher & economist, wrote his book The Wealth of
Nations that says individuals left on their own would work for their own self-interest. In
doing so, they would be guided as if by an “invisible hand” to use resources efficiently
and thus achieve the maximum good for society. From Smith’s writings also came the
idea of laissez-faire, a French term, means “to let alone.” (Meaning that the government
should not interfere in the marketplace) Government’s role is strictly limited to ensure
free competition in the marketplace.
Fiscal policy—the federal government’s use of spending & taxation policies to affect
overall business activity
Monetary policy—policy that involves changing the rate of growth of the money supply
in circulation in order to affect the cost and availability of credit.
If asked what type of economy we have n the U.S. there are different terms that describe
our economy—it is a Market Economy, a free enterprise system, and a capitalist system
or capitalism.
Market Economy—system in which individuals own the factors of production and make
economic decisions through free interaction
4 Factors of Production –1) land, 2) labor, 3) capital, 4) entrepreneurs
Capital or Capital goods—anything used to produce –for example: any type of
machinery, tools, and/or equipment
Labor is done by people
Entrepreneurs are individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and
improve management techniques (involves being innovative and willing to take risks in
order to reap profits)
Labor Union—is an association of workers organized to improve wages and working
Fixed costs—costs that are the same no matter how many units of a good are produced--mortgage payments & property taxes are examples
Variable costs—expenses that change with the number of products produced—for
example, wages & raw materials—expenses will increase as production grows
Trade-off is the alternative you face if you decide to do one thing rather than another
Opportunity cost—the cost of the next best alternative use of time and money when
choosing to do one thing rather than another
Law of demand—quantity demanded and price move in opposite directions
Law of supply—principle that suppliers will normally offer more for sale at higher prices
and less at lower prices
If a jury cannot decide a case –the judge will declare a hung jury and there will be a
Supreme Court Cases Mentioned—Korematsu v. United States –court said it was a
necessary response to the attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor.
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas—case decided that segregation or
“separate but equal” was unconstitutional –overturning the previous case of Plessy vs.
Ferguson that had established the “separate but equal” policy in 1896
Marbury v. Madison—established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review
Miranda v. Arizona—held that a person in police custody cannot be questioned unless
told his rights –1) to remain silent 2) to an attorney 3) anything said can be used against
them—called the Miranda warning
Leandro v. State of North Carolina—1997 The North Carolina Constitution guarantees
the right to an education. In 1994, parents from low wealth counties sued the state for
assistance because they felt their counties did not provide adequate education.
Mapp v. Ohio—Evidence gained in violation of the 4th Amendment may not be used
(exclusionary rule)
The Supreme Court is the highest level of courts
District courts have original jurisdiction –all cases start there first
3 levels—district, appeals, and supreme—the district court is the only one that has a jury
14th Amendment—passed because many Southern states after the civil war passed “black
codes” that kept African Americans from holding certain jobs, limited their property
rights, and restricted them in other ways. To remedy these problems the 14th Amendment
was enacted in 1868 –stated that a U.S. citizen is anyone born or naturalized in the
U.S.—also required every state to grant its citizens “equal protection of the laws” –this
nationalized the Bill of Rights
26th Amendment gave voting rights to 18 year olds—as a result of the Vietnam War
The 18th Amendment outlawed the sale or distribution of alcohol, but the 21st
Amendment cancelled out the 18th making the sell of alcohol legal again.
A Platform is a series of statements expressing the party’s principles, beliefs, and
positions on election issues.
A filibuster is a tactic used for defeating a bill in the Senate by talking until the bill’s
sponsor withdraws it.
In the state of North Carolina the Governor is in charge of the National Guard which
would be our state troops/soldiers