Chapter 16 pt. 1: Perspectives on Psychological Disorders and Anxiety Agenda 1. Intro Page and Information (5) 2. Notes: Psychological Disorders (20) 3. Dissociative disorder article and questions (10) 4. Child of Rage Clip and Discussion (15) 5. Discuss Personality Papers (15) Defining Psychological Disorder A Psychological Disorder is: a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be: 1. atypical- not enough in itself 2. disturbing- varies with time & culture 3. maladaptive- harmful; causes suffering 4. unjustifiable- hard to find logic behind a person’s actions, feelings or thoughts. History of Understanding Psychological Disorders In Ancient times, disorders were thought to have been caused by movements of the sun and moon (lunacy is full moon) or by evil spirits. Treatments for people with mental illness were very inhumane even up until the mid 1900’s. Patients were often chained like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, etc. Conditions for Psychologically Disabled Ancient Greek Traphines European Traphines “released evil spirits.” Conditions for Psychologically Disabled Conditions for Psychologically Disabled Conditions for Psychologically Disabled Medical Model Improves Conditions Eventually the medical model came to dominate understandings of mental illness. Late 1800s The medical model assumes that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed based on their symptoms and be treated and in most cases cured. Assumption of medical model drastically improves conditions in mental hospitals. Most Mental Health Professionals Assume Disorders Have Interlocking Causes Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective: assume biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors interact to produce disorders. Biological (Evolution, individual genes, brain structures and chemistry) Sociocultural (Roles, expectations, definition of normality and disorder) Psychological (Stress, trauma, learned helplessnes mood-related perceptio and memories) Classifying Psychological Disorders DSM-IV: the most widely used manual for classifying psychological disorders. The DSM-IV currently lists 410 mental disorders up from 145 in the DSM-II (1968) and 60 in DSM-I (1951). More Criticisms Pros? Reliable Need a DSM diagnosis for insurance Cons? Almost any behavior can be labeled Distorts how we perceive others Prejudice Self fulfilling prophecy Does not explain causes Classifying Neurotic vs. Psychotic Disorders Neurotic disorder usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially Freud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxiety Psychotic disorder person loses contact with reality experiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders in general refer to disorders that involve persistent and distressing nervousness and apprehension OR maladaptive behaviors which reduce anxiety (defenses against anxiety). General Characteristics of Anxiety: Constant worrying, fear, or uncertainty Feels inadequate Oversensitive Difficulty concentrating May suffer insomnia Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder: person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder: disorder marked by moments of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain or other frightening sensations. “Panic Attacks.” 1 in 75 ppl Anxiety Disorders Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD): disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions). Anxiety Disorders Phobia: disorder marked by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of specific object or situation. Common Phobias Claustrophobic – fear of tight spaces Agoraphobic –fear of leaving your home Acrophobic – Fear of heights Xenophobic – Fear of other races other than your own Phobias Triskaidekaphobia Phobias Santa Claustrophobia Phobia Trichophobia Anxiety Disorders Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: disorder brought on by traumatic experiences, memories. Characterized by haunting memories and nightmares, social withdrawal, or anxiety. Causes of Anxiety Disorders from Learning Perspective (Behavioral) 1. Fear Conditioning : ex: rape victim may develop fear of being alone in apartment. 2. Stimulus Generalization: ex: fear of heights leads to fear of flying even without flying. 3. Reinforcement (ENCOURAGES behavior): avoiding places you have phobia about rewards you by lessening your anxiety. 4. Observational Learning/Modeling: learn from what you see Causes of Anxiety Disorders from Biological Perspective 1. Evolution: certain fears help us survive. 2. Genes: correlations with identical twins and phobias. 3. Physiology: brain chemistry. Often see increased brain activities in brain areas involving impulse control. Ex: picture overactive frontal lobe activity involved in directing attention.