The Reformation in England, and the Counter-Reformation Agenda 1. Bell Ringer: Why did Martin Luther want to break from the Catholic Church? 2. Lecture: Protestant Reformation in England, Counter-Reformation 3. Comparing the Protestant and Catholic Church 1564. 4. Timeline of the Renaissance and Reformation. 5. Council of Trent: Primary Document Analysis 6. Review and Test. Bad effects of Reformation • Protestant beliefs swept the North. • Holy Roman Emperor Charles V went to war against Protestants in Germany, succeeded in defeating them. • However, couldn’t bring them back to the church, Treaty of Augsburg signed in 1555. England and the Reformation • Henry VIII initially supported the Catholic faith by defending the church against Martin Luther. (1521) • However, Henry was tired of the Church running his country of England. • The Anglican Church was born. (1529) – Six years and a divorce… • The king was the “only supreme head on earth” of the Church of England. Queen Mary I (1553-1558) • She changed the religious doctrine of England. • “Bloody Mary” as she was called for attempting to restart the Catholic faith through fear. – Anyone that was labeled a heretic was burned at the stake. • Nearly 280 burned at the stake. Elizabeth and the Spanish Armada • Daughter of Anne Boleyn. • She reinstated the Anglican Church, but did not attempt to kill off the Catholics. (1559) • Elizabethan Compromise laid foundations of the Anglican Church. • She would battle against Philip and the Spanish Armada in 1588, partly because of religion. Catholic Reformation • The Catholic Church waited too long to respond to the Protestant Reformation. • Much of Northern England was lost to the Protestants. • They sought to attain two goals. 1. Reform the Church 2. Establish countermeasures against Protestantism. There was a rigorous campaign to improve the morals of the clergy. Council of Trent (1545-1563) • Sought to keep a balance favorable to Rome. • Reform and reinvigorate the church. • Restated beliefs and corrected abuses. • Simony = sale of Church positions. (outlawed) • Chastity was restored. • There was no compromise with Luther or Calvin. Ignatius of Loyola • Spanish nobleman who founded a new society based on service to the pope. • He became a soldier of the lord. Founded the Jesuits. • They took the monastic views of chastity, poverty, and obedience to the pope.