Chapter 22: The Water Planet – Vocabulary Read each definition, rewrite the definition IN YOUR OWN WORDS, and then draw a picture to illustrate the definition. Black smoker: A vent in the ocean floor that spews water of about 380° from volcano-like chimneys. The hot water reacts with the surrounding seawater to form clouds of black iron sulfide particles, which have the appearance of black smoke. Boiling point: The temperature at which a solution turns from liquid to gas. Freezing point: The temperature at which a solution turns from liquid to solid. Mixed layer: The surface layer of ocean water. Oceanography: The scientific study of the ocean and seas. Salinity: The measure of the dissolved salts in water. Thermocline: The layer of ocean directly beneath the mixed layer, in which the temperature decreases rapidly. Water mass: A body of water with distinct properties based on where it originated.