APUSH chapter 13.2

APUSH chapter 13.2
What lands were acquired between 1840 and 1846?
◦ Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842
 Settled border b/w Maine & New Brunswick (Canada)
◦ Annexation of Texas 1845
 Originally proposed by Tyler
 Pushed through by Polk
 Controversy?
 Slavery
◦ Oregon
Joint occ. w/ Britain since 1818
“54-40’ or fight!”
Negotiate – 49th parallel
Brits leave
◦ Several conspiracies to annex Mexico, Cuba, parts of
Central America
 None materialize
 Why not Canada?
◦ US and Polk wanted Mexican land
◦ Mexico suspicious of US (meddling w/ Texas?)
Polk send Gen. Zachary Taylor to Nueces River
Slidell to buy Cali. And NM from Mexico
Mexico rejects offer
Polk instigates war
Taylor crosses Nueces River into Mexican(?) territory
Mexico attacks US forces
◦ Slavery?
◦ Spot resolution – introduced by Abraham Lincoln in
House of Reps.
 Asked Polk to provide exact spots on US soil where American
blood was shed
Top US generals: Taylor and Winfield Scott
During fighting, Stephen Kearny “liberates” New Mex.
Fremont and supporters declare California ind. Nation
Winfield Scott takes Vera Cruz, then Mexico city
Many Civil War generals get first experience in Mex. War
John C Fremont won
in California
The disputed
Zachary Taylor won in
area of Texas
northern Mexico
Stephen Kearney
captured New Mexico
Winfield Scott
captured Mexico City
Not everyone supported the
Mexican-American War
Whigs opposed it
Northerners saw it
as a Southern
“slave-power” plot
to extend slavery
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo:
◦ US gets disputed Texas area, Cali., NM
◦ New Mexico includes present states of NM, AZ,
Nevada, Utah, parts of Colorado & Wyoming
Wilmot Proviso
◦ Proposes banning slavery in ALL territory gained
from Mexican War (except Texas)
◦ Defeated, but ignites controversy
Gadsden Purchase – 1853
◦ US buys more land in SW from Mexico
◦ Mex. Doesn’t want another war
What drives many Americans west after 1848?
◦ California Gold Rush
 Sutter’s Mill (CA) 1848
 People head west for the next year (49ers)
How does west change?
◦ Population shifts westward
◦ Urbanization of west (San Francisco)
◦ Immigrant groups
 Esp. Chinese
◦ Increase of non-agriculture business in west
 Mining
 Businesses to support mining
 Saloons, boarding houses, laundry services, outfitters
 Levi-Strauss