Civics Study Guide The United States government is a Republican government. That means that citizens elect people to represent us as a group and to make the laws to protect us. The Federal government is broken into three branches. The Executive Branch which has the President, the Vice President and the Cabinet. They execute the laws. The Legislative Branch is the law making branch. Congress is the governing body which is made up of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Judicial Branch is the Supreme Court. The 9 Judges decide if the laws passed are Constitutional. They each share an equal portion of the control. The Constitution and Bill of Rights are our Federal Laws. They established the form of our government and made the necessary changes to make sure all people are treated equally. The US government is based on two basic principles or beliefs that unite the people of our country. They are the right to Life, Liberty and Pursuit of happiness. This is our Natural Right. The other is that everyone should be Equal under the Law. This means that all people are treated fairly. The goal of the US Government is to protects everyone’s rights and ensure their equal treatment. In addition to our Federal government, each State has a government. The Governor is the leader of each state. Within the state, each community has its own local government. The Mayor is the leader of the local government. Famous Americans George Washington – he was the first President of the United States and was a General of the Continental Army in the Revolutionary war. Thomas Jefferson – he was the third President of the United States. He wrote the Declaration of the Independence. Abraham Lincoln – he was the 16th President of the United States. He led the Union states during the Civil War. He worked toward ending slavery. Thurgood Marshall – he was the first African American Supreme Court Justice Martin Luther King Jr. – helped gain civil rights for all people by peaceful means. Rosa Parks – was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on the bus to a white person. Her act inspired the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Susan B. Anthony – was a leading suffragist, and helped get women the right to vote Cesar Chavez – he fought for the rights, pay and better working conditions for Mexican American Farm workers Holidays Independence Day – Celebrated on July 4th – it is to celebrate the day we declared our independence from the British. Memorial Day – Celebrated on the last Monday in May – it is to honor all those who lost their lives fighting for our country in the military Veteran’s Day – Celebrated on November 11th – it is to honor all those who served or are serving our country in the military. Diversity America is a diverse country. Its citizens have come from many other countries. The diversity of our people has brought many different customs and traditions to our country. We have a variety of celebrations of different cultures. We also have a variety of foods, clothing and music representative of many of the different cultures.