Chapter 3 Facility Design and Construction


Chapter 3

Facility Design and Construction

Chapter Objectives

1. Describe the process of facility design and construction

2. Demonstrate proficiency in the interrelated steps involved in planning, programming, site selection, and designing

3. Discuss the estimating and bidding processes and the construction of the facility

Estimating Costs & Budgeting

Project budget preparation:

Determine feasibility by weighing the potential expenses against the projected revenue

Develop the

Pro forma

Estimate fixed and variable costs

Identify potential revenue streams

Estimating Construction Costs

Construction and other costs

Identifying hard costs

Establishing soft costs

Identifying the cost of:






Site Selection

The site will contribute to the attraction of future patrons to the sport facility.

A dedicated site search for land and location that has potential to produce anticipated revenues is key to future success.

A sound design plan and schematics are vital to properly determine the size of your site.

Site factors such as multiple entry and exit points, traffic lights, and dedicated turn lanes are extremely important.

Site Reports

There are a two important reports that should be reviewed prior to acquiring the land:

1. Topographical report: displays key elements that make up the site such as electrical, sewer, water, and gas

2. Geographical report: indicates soil conditions that dictate which materials are necessary to support the foundation for the proposed building as well as provisions for drainage of surface and runoff water

Design Process

By defining the components for the site schematics, a framework is established for the design elements to commence.

The contract with the design firm must address that the facility will be designed based on the established budget.

The designers’ contract should include the following:

Design costs for schematic, design development, and contract drawings

Costs for the civil engineer, topographical and geotechnical surveys

Landscape design costs

Mechanical, plumbing, electrical, and fire protection drawings

Proper permit issuance

Construction administration

Close out of the project and final punch list

Design Process


The first set of drawings, the schematics:

Determine the function of the building

Illustrate the proposed components of the layout

Designate required spaces per code

The architect and engineer then finalize the drawings based on the site information to ensure compliance with local codes.

Material selections are confirmed and implemented into drawings.

Design Process


Drawing production and attainment of permits can take 8–12 months.

Construction cannot commence without permits, which can lead to work stoppage and delays.

Permit attainment varies by local code officials, but usually requires a site layout plan.

Construction Process

Three to four potential contractors should be solicited for bids.

Interview a number of contractors to ensure the best price for the job.

Use references!

Thoroughly review bids to determine a good fit.

Consider cost savings over time versus the immediate savings. Choose durable materials over cheap materials.

Construction Process


Timeline for completion not only depends on size, but also the delivery of supplies and materials.

Construction typically takes 8–12 months to complete, but unique materials can severely delay the project.

Weekly design meetings are typically common.

Design decisions (e.g., light fixture choices, carpet colors) can also delay the project.


Owners, contractors, and designers should all carry insurance to protect themselves throughout the process.

Liability insurance protects against failure of the architecture and/or engineering of the building.

Accident/injury insurance protects contractors if employees get injured while on site.

Builders risk insurance protect the owner from theft of materials, fire, destruction by Acts of God, and injuries.

Building Green

The design, construction, building, and maintenance of facilities involve a great deal of energy, water, and other resources that create considerable waste and impact the environment and ecosystem (EPA, 2012).

Green building is a requirement of the design-build process (although requirements vary by area).

There are a host of specified materials and techniques that are renewable and reusable.

Builders often take care to install mechanical and electrical systems that reduce our carbon footprint and are energy efficient.

Building Green


Pervious materials:

allow water to escape from the building or site, which allows the water to soak naturally into the ground.

Impervious surfaces

, like cement pavement, prevent precipitation from naturally soaking into the ground causing water to run rapidly into storm drains, sewer systems, and drainage ditches. Leads to problems such as:

Flooding, erosion, and turbidity

Habitat destruction

Changes in stream flow

Sewer overflows and infrastructure damage

Contaminated streams, rivers, and coastal water