Bible 110 Old Testament Deuteronomy 1-17 A.

Bible 110 Old Testament
Moses Reviews the Law
Deuteronomy 1-17
The Book of Deuteronomy begins the so-called Deuteronomic history of
Israel (Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings). The Book of
Deuteronomy sets forth the methodological and historical presuppositions for
understanding the Deuteronomic history.
Deuteronomy purports to be a speech of Moses, but it presupposes a
complete cultus and the existence of monarchy. Early church fathers connected
it with King Josiah rather than with Moses (7th century rather than 13th century).
DeWette connected Deuteronomy with Josiah’s reform 622/21 BC and
separated it from Tetrateuch.
Driver suggested that Deuteronomy originated in Jerusalem in the reign of
either Manasseh (687-642) or Hezekiah (725-687). During the dark years of
Manasseh, the Deuteronomists came in as an underground movement.
Welch (1924) suggested that Deuteronomy was a pre-exile law book
maybe even going back to the period of the judges. Originated in North Israel,
not Jerusalem, pre-monarchical, Northern theology.
Von Rad (1948) revolutionized the study in Deuteronomy. He stressed
the preaching quality of Deuteronomy. Other law codes are addresses from God
to Moses. Deuteronomy is addressed from Moses to the people (preached
commandments, a series of sermons).
C. The form of the sermon is covenant renewal
1. General introduction, parenetic exhortation
2. Proclamation of Law
3. Covenantal response (obligation)
4. Curse and/or blessing (15:1-6)
Deuteronomy itself is a giant paranesis.
Ch. 5-11 Paranetic introduction
Ch 12-26:15 Law section
Ch 26:16-19 Covenantal response
Ch 28 ff Blessing and curse
Bible 110 Old Testament
Covenantal form was transmitted through the cultus. Apodictic laws of
Deuteronomy demand a cultic setting. Deuteronomic preacher is Levite; he has
access to the law.
This preaching had a teaching faction. Levites are northern; laws
originated in the Northern Kingdom and migrated south. Deuteronomy is
concerned with implementing holy war (Yahweh leads the people into battle).
Northern view that the name of Yahweh dwells in the Temple. Southern view
that Yahweh tabernacles with his people.
Deuteronomy may have entered Judea under Hezekiah, but it really did
not take effect until Josiah. These materials gave him the idea for Holy War
against Assyria.
Deuteronomic preachers were connected to the people of the land.
People of the land chose Josiah. Deuteronomy is resurgence of Mosaic
traditions in Jerusalem cultus. When Deuteronomy came south after the fall of
the Northern Kingdom, it made a compromise with strong Mosaic tradition, with
Davidic Jerusalem tradition,
1. Centrality of worship in Jerusalem; Deuteronomic preachers were
able legitimize this through to Moses rather than David
2. De-evaluation of ark. Name of Yahweh replaces ark in importance
3. Election of choice. Yahweh chooses you. Related to choice of
David. Gave it mosaic authority.
4. Kingship – accepted David’s kingship but limited it by external law
5. Concept of land: Land is a symbol or pledge of Yahweh’s choice of
the people. De-emphasizes Mt. Zion and emphasizes the whole
Deuteronomy is northern, pre-monarchical; transmitted through
cultus. Material went to Jerusalem after the fall. Materials connected with
reform of Hezekiah. Deuteronomy was preserved at Jerusalem where it
assimilated Jerusalemite materials. It is not really datable; but understood
as a stream of tradition.
Bible 110 Old Testament
Understood Deuteronomy to be evangelistic campaign to call
people of Judea back to be people of God in the vacuum left by Assyrian
departure. It tried to stamp out sin and rebellion (5) and was Judea’s last
chance to become the people of God. They must not lose the land.
People had forgotten covenantal law; Deuteronomy preachers re-exhorted
covenant law.
Results: Deuteronomy failed; tried to force reform by royal decree.
It worked only as long as Josiah lived. When he died, it crumbled.
1st Collection of Moses Speeches
Ch 1-4
Introduction to Deuteronomic history
Moses addresses all of Israel, recapitulating their journey from Egypt to
the gates of the Promised Land. The theme is the land and possession of
it. God has given them this land to possess it. Joshua replaces Moses to
lead the people into the land.
Ch 4 Moses introduces the law and emphasizes the importance of
keeping it. Law and land go together (sermon on 1st commandment).
2nd Collection of Moses Speeches (chs 5-28)
Ch 5 Moses gives the Ten Commandments again
He urges the people to keep the laws, statutes, and ordinances when they
go into the land to possess it.
Ch 6 The great commandment; Responsibility to teach the succeeding
Ch 7 That which the people can or cannot do; keep the commandments.
Drive out the nations which are there.
Ch 8 Remember the ways of the Lord; do not forget them
Ch 9 The Lord goes over the Jordan before the people. They need to
remember that it is He who led them over and not they themselves. Do
not provoke the Lord, God.
Bible 110 Old Testament
Ch 10 Moses on the mountain receiving the commandments; what does
the Lord require of them?
Ch 11 Obey the Lord and keep all his commandments. Lay up these
words in your heart. Write them on the doorposts of your house; blessings
and curses.
Ch 12 The Lord will show you the place which he has chosen for you to
sacrifice and make offerings; what they may eat and not eat; may not eat
Ch 13 Severe warnings against serving other gods
Ch 14 Clean and unclean animals, fish, and birds; bring tithes of all things
Ch 15 Year of release (sabbatical)
Ch 16 The Passover and its observance; other appointed feasts
Ch 17 Administration of justice; mention of a king (reflects monarchy)