Analysis of market based instruments for the environment

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Analysis of market
based instruments for
the environment
Viveka Palm
Head of Unit,
Environmental accounts and Natural resources,
SCB
Adjunct professor, KTH
2012-06-11
SEEA Volume 3: Applications
and extensions
Taxes and environmentally
related transfers
Australian Bureau of Statistics:
Nancy Steinbach and Lilina Feng
Statistics Sweden: Viveka Palm
Outline
• 1. Description
- highlight the key indicators and present examples
of tables or graphs.
2. Policy and analytical relevance
3. Overview of steps and data requirements
4. Links to relevant technical advice / theory and
links to specific examples.
Environmental Taxes
• There are a range of countries around the world
which have implemented environmental taxes. It is
important to understand the use of the taxes, their
social implications and their impact on the
environment.
• §4.150 of the SEEA central framework 2012 define
an environmental tax as a tax whose tax base is
a physical unit (or a proxy of it) of something
that has a proven, specific, negative impact on
the environment.
Environmental tax revenue by type, EU-27,
1995-2009 (EUR and % GDP)
Distribution of CO2 tax revenues, emissions rights,
CO2 emissions covered by the trading scheme and
total CO2 emissions in Sweden by Industry (NACE)
Agriculture, forestry, fisheries (01-05)
Mining (10-14)
Manufacturing industry (15-37)
Electricity, gas, heat (40)
CO2 tax
Emission rights distributed
Water works and construction (41-45)
CO2 emissions within the trade
Trade and hotels (50-55)
Total CO2 emissions
Transport and communication (60-64)
Finance, other service, public adm
(65-99)
0
20
40
60
%
80
100
Other environmental related
transfers
Tables showing
Implicit subsidies Environmental
motivated transfers
Environmentally damaging subsidies
from Australia, Netherlands and Denmark
Policy and analytical
relevance
• The G20 leaders in 2009 agreed to phase out
subsidies that “encourage wasteful consumption,
reduce our energy security, impede investment in
clean energy sources and undermine efforts to
deal with the threat of climate change”.
• OECD and IEA are contributing to the follow-up on
this commitment by the G20 (see e.g. Inventory of
Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax
Expenditures For Fossil Fuels, 2011).
Overview of steps and data
requirements
• Cross classify National Accounts data on
subsidies, social benefits, transfers etc. to
environmental purpose;
• An analysis of government budget lines and/or
annual statements (realizations) of relevant
government agencies;
• Micro data concerning actual payments of
transfers
Thank you!
[email protected]
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