Department of Food Science & Technology,
University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria.
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
2010/2011 Session
 Semester:
 Format:
 Instructor:
 Class:
 Recommended Text:
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
2 Hourly Lectures per week
Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Temporary Office,
FST Wing,
Thursday (10-12pm @ RC 203)
Grading of the
Examination = 60%
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Oral presentation
= 20%
Report writing
= 20%
General Policies and Principles
 Examination- CAT will be inform of written and oral
presentation while the exam will be theory based;
 Grading- The University rules applies in this case;
 Attendance- This is compulsory for all the sections of the
course. Make up test will not be encouraged by the
instructor at all times;
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Academic Integrity- Students are expected to set high
ethical standards for themselves and others;
 Social justice- I will maintain a positive learning environment
based upon open
 There shall be no discrimination on the basis of race, sex, age,
disability, religion, sexual orientation, color or national origin.
 Any suggestions as to how to further such a positive and open
environment in this class will be appreciated and given serious
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Scientific communication;
 Types of written communication- Journals, reviews,
conference papers etc;
 Types of oral communication- Seminar, conferences,
talks and art of oral presentation;
 Modern information technologies;
 Scientific illustrations – Figures, tables and plates
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
What is Scientific writing?
 Scientific writing is writing about science
The cornerstone of the
philosophy of science is
based on the fundamental
assumption that original
research must be published
-An unwritten law in science
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
What is a research report?
 It describes the completed study to other researchers,
professionals, students or global audience;
 It communicates information to the selected audience
as clearly and accurately as possible about the
research project;
 Research reports highlights the essence of the study
and brings the study to an end;
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Hence, scientist must not only do science but must be
able to write science;
 It is the art of presenting scientific results to fellow
researchers or end users;
 It is a written scientific document that the researcher
produces as a result of a research study or
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Avenues for
Scientific findings
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Extension & popular
Conference papers
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Thesis &
Project proposal;
Book chapters
Annual reports;
Extension & popular communication
Extension manuals; newspaper reports;
magazine article; radio broadcast;
Films & videos; Audiovisuals shows;
Practical demonstration; handbills;
Cartoons; photographs
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Research Journal
It is the most important for any academic/scientist;
It provides new and original information from a particular
It is patronized by specialist in that area & others that
borrows ideas for other purposes;
Abstract; introduction; materials & methods; results &
discussion; conclusion; acknowledgement; references.
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Research review/critical review
 It
is a research report in which the author(s) is an
The information contained therein may not be as a result
of the research activity of the authors;
It contains information on the subject matter but on
different materials;
It is a compilation of research works from different
scientist brought together in a particular field
theoretical background;
conclusion; acknowledgement; references
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Conference Paper/proceedings
 Scientific conference is the gathering of specialist in that field
to share ideas together;
 A researcher can present the results of his research work to
the audience;
 The presentations are compiled together in a book/CD called
conference proceedings;
 It may be one page or extended abstract
 Brief abstract, introduction; materials and methods; result &
discussion; references
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Give ten examples each of the following in your field of
 Journals
 Reviews &
 Conference proceeding
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Research Proposal
 It is a detailed description of the plan intended to put
into operation within a set time frame for
achievement of the said objective or hypothesis to be
tested in the research work being proposed;
 It may be written for approval or for sponsorship;
 It represents ideas in written form;
 It allows for proper monitoring of the research work;
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Research Proposal
Front Matter
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Main Text
Back Matter
 Front Matter
 Title page
 Short Summary
 Main text
 Introduction (problem statement; justification; short
literature review; objectives)
 Materials & Methods (equipment; sampling method;
experimental design)
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 Data Analysis
 Conclusions (practical implication and application of
the research results)
 Time scheduling
 Cost implication
 Back matter
 References
 Appendices
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Thesis and dissertation
 This is a report that is written as a result of
completion a research result;
 It has similar component as a research proposal;
 A striking feature is the length of literature review.
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Front Matter
• Title page, name of researcher, degree at time of
submission, statement affirming the degree to be
awarded, address of university and department, year
and month of supervision;
Certification page;
Declaration page;
Dedication page;
Acknowledgement page
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Table of contents
 List of tables
 List of figures
 Epilogue
 Abstract (between 100-500 words) but average of 250
 Main Text
• Introduction
• Literature review
• Materials and methods
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Results and discussion
 Conclusion and recommendations
 Back matter
• References
• Appendices (questionnaire, raw data or statistical
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Write a research proposal in your field of study for
submission to your project supervisor.
 Your proposal must explicitly depict all the
components of a standard research proposal.
 Your proposal should also be ready for oral
 Time frame: 2 weeks
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Reference styles
 There are many ways of writing references but there
are preferred ways;
 The preferred ways could be divided into three as
shown below:
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Number with
Name – Year system
For text citation;
 Sobukola (2007) or (Sobukola, 2007).
 Sobukola and Dairo (2007) or (Sobukola and Dairo,
 Sobukola et al. (2008) or (Sobukola et al., 2008).
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Reference listing
 Akanbi,
C.T., Adeyemi, R.S. & Ojo, A. (2006). Drying
characteristics and sorption isotherm of tomato slices. Journal of
Food Engineering, 73, 157–163.
 Akpinar, E.K., Bicer, Y. & Midilli, A. (2003b). Modeling and
experimental study on drying of apple slices in a convective cyclone
dryer. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 26, 515–541.
 Babajide, J.M., Obadina, A.O., Oyewole, O.B. & Ugbaka, L.N.
(2006). Microbial quality of dry yam ‘‘gbodo’’ parboiled with ⁄
without adjuncts. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5, 278–281.
 Chou, S., Chiang, B., Chung, Y., Chen, P. & Hsu, C. (2006). Effects
of storage temperatures on the anti oxidative activity and
composition of yam. Food Chemistry, 98, 618–623.
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Senadeera, W., Bhandari, B., Young, G. & Wijesinghe, B. (2000).
Physical property changes of fruits and vegetables during hot air
drying. In: Drying Technology in Agriculture and Food Sciences
(edited by A.S. Mujumdar). Pp. 159–161. Enfield: Science
 Sobukola, O.P., Dairo, O.U., Sanni, L.O., Odunewu, V.O. & Fafiolu,
B.O. (2006). Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying of fever
leaves (Ocimum viride) under open sun. In: 2nd National drying
symposium (NDS ‘06), Ilorin, Nigeria, 19–21 June.
 Togrul, I.T. & Pehlivan, D. (2002). Mathematical modeling of solar
drying of apricots in thin layers. Journal of Food Engineering, 55,
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Numbered with alphabetical listing
 The list in the numbered alphabetical system is
arranged in the same order;
 References are numbered;
 The citation in the text is by number in parenthesis
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Citation - Sequence
 Each citation in the text is given as a number written
as superscript in the order it is mentioned;
 The reference list is arranged sequentially by number
and not alphabetical;
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Illustration of scientific result
 Bar chart;
 Pie chart;
 Histogram;
 Graphs;
 Line graphs
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Characteristics of good Illustration
 The title must be explicit enough;
 The title must be clear and concise;
 Must be simple and clear;
 Must contain relevant legend;
 It must be virtually appealing and not crowded;
 It must be well organized
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Oral Presentations of Scientific research work
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Oral presentation
 less formal than writing
 language is conversational
 audience
 slides – provide structure, emphasize visuals
 presenter controls pace (not reader)
 fixed time limit
 strive
for simplicity – less detail, less
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Principles of Oral presentation
 planning – purpose, audience, scope
 preparation – assemble material, decide how to
 structure – logical development
 visuals – graphs, images, photos
Practical tip: backup your presentation well:
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Structure of Oral presentation
Structure provides the basis for logical development
 Introduction
 state purpose
 provide background
 Body
 develop the topic
 Closing
 state conclusion with conviction
 suggest what to do next; provide motivation
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Power Point slides
 Use slide-making software, e.g., Power Point,
SliTeX, …
 Slides should provide structure for your talk
 Keep slides simple, uncluttered
 short,
punchy lines
 use phrases, not sentences
 spelling and English usage should be correct
 avoid numerous equations
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
More on Slides…
 Slides should be easy to read
 Use images and graphs
 Use large font size >18 pts
 no more than 10 – 12 lines
 graphs should be simple with large lettering and
thick lines
 ► rule of thumb: slide should be legible at arm’s
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Oral presentation: style
 Try to be relaxed and comfortable
 Write down outline of your talk beforehand
 Practice beforehand
 Speak clearly and plainly
 Do not speak too fast
 Allow 1 to 2 minutes per slide
 Do not read from the slide word-for-word all the
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Oral Presentation: style
 Connect with audience
 eye
 pick several people to ‘talk to’
 Avoid Fidgeting
 Dress appropriately
 for
formal presentation (e.g., conference), look
 Do not go over your allotted time
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
More on dressing…..
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
What about men?
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Oral presentation of scientific results
Steps to be taken before oral presentation
 Prepare illustrative materials carefully;
 Text must be easy to read and legible;
 Proper rehearsal
 Orderly presentation of illustrations;
 Dress neatly and well.
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
At the conference room
 Ensure your presentation is well loaded by the
 Speak clearly to your audience and not at your
 Be masterly in your presentation;
 Adopt a single conversation style;
 Be relaxed and be confident;
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
 Pause after each slide and allow your audience to
digest the information;
 Be time conscious;
 Do not distract the audience;
 For proper audibility, do not get the microphone
too close to your mouth;
 Thank the audience after presentation.
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Using poster in presenting research result
 A poster is a shortened form of a research paper;
 Presented using one or more large sheets of paper;
 Used effectively to present pictures that tell the full
story of a research activity;
 Information is provided through the use of visuals in a
well coordinated and organized combination of text
and illustration.
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Characteristics of a good poster
 It must be simple and clear;
 Easy to read and understand the relevant legend/key;
 It should be visually appealing and attractive;
 The text and illustration must be harmoniously
combined to produce an effective presentation;
 It must tell the story completely
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Major elements of a poster
 The title of the poster (bold & catchy);
 Introduction (text);
 Materials & methods (text & illustration);
 Results (text & illustrations like graphs; line drawings;
actual specimen)
 Conclusion (Text & presentation)
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola
Copyright: Dr. O.P. Sobukola