EDITORIAL LIST Editor-in-chief Prof. Adebayo Lawal (Director. Inst. of Educ) Managing Editor Dr. S. B. Olajide (Dept. of CSET) Editorial Board Members Dr. (Mrs) A. T. Alabi (Dept. of Edu. Magt) Dr. (Mrs.) M. f. Salman Dept, of CEST) Dr. S. Amaele (Dept. Of Edu. Foundations) DR. O. A. Oniye (Dept. of G & C) Mr. O, A. Onifade (Dept of PHE) Consulting Editors Prof. Babatunde Ipaye (Dept. of G & C) A.B.U. Zaria Prof. (Mrs.) Eunice Okeke (Department of Education) UNN Nzukka Prof. M Ajibero Librarian University of Ilorin, Ilorin Prof. Taoheed Adedoja (Dept of PHE) B. U. K Kano Prof. David Jiboyewa (Dept of Education) University of Maiduguri Prof. O. J. Ehindero (Dept. of Curriculum Studies) O.A.U Ife Prof. M. B. Ogunniyi Director & the UNESCO Chair School of Science & Maths Ed University of the Western Cape South Africa Prof. Samuel Ayodele Institute of Education University of Ibadan Prof. Shehu Jimoh (Dept. of Educational Foundations) University of Ilorin NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS DR. A. ABDULKAREEM is a Senior Lecturer the Department of Educational Management University of Ilorin. DR. A. O. ADEGBOYE, formerly Deputy Provost (Academics) is a Chief Lecturer in the Depart of Mathematics, Kwara State College-of Education, Ilorin. MR. Z. ADESPLAM is a Chief Lecturer in the Department of Music, Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin. DR. S. AMAELE is a Lecturer in the Department of Educational Foundations, University of Ilorin. DR. B. T. DANMOLE is a Senior lecturer in Department of curriculum, Studies and Educational Technology, University of Ilorin. DR. M. A. FAKOMOGBON is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, University of Ilorin. DR. R. A. E. IHEANACHO is a Lecturer in the Department of Educational Foundations, University of Calabar, Calabar DR. M. A. KAYODE is a Principal Lecturer and Dean of the School of Education, Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin. DR. Y. Y. MUSLIM is a Lecturer at the Polytechnic, Ibadan, Satelite Campus, Saki. DR. F. O. OGUNLADE is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. MR. O. A. ONIFADE is a Lecturer in the Department of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. DR. E. O. OMOSEWO is a Lecturer in the Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, University of Ilorin MR. O. L. OLAITAN is a Lecturer in the Department of Health and Physical Education, University of Ilorin. DR. S. A. ONASANYA is a Lecturer in the Department of Curriculum Studies and Education Technology, University of Ilorin. MRS. I. B. OMORODION is a Lecturer in the Institute of Fresh Water Fisheries Research, New-Bussa. DR. R. OMOTOYE is a Lecturer in the Department of Religion, University of Ilorin. DR. A. A. OLAOYE is a the Assistant Director of Programmes National Commission for Colleges of Education, Abuja, FCT. DR. M. D. SALMAN is a Lecturer in the Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, University of Ilorin. MR. S. SANUSI is a Lecturer in the Department of Educational Foundations, Kwara State College of Education, Oro. Copyright 2003 Institute of Educational University of Ilorin ISSN 0795-2199 INSTITUTE JOURNAL OF STUDIES IN EDUCATION PUBLISHED BY INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN, NIGERIA VOL. 1 NO. 5 JUNE, 2003. EDITORIAL The Institute Journal of Studies in Education (IJSE) is a publication of the University of Ilorin. The journal is devoted to publishing empirical and theoretical research in all areas of education. Its readership and contributorship have increased over the years, and we are proud to state that it continues to enjoy National and International acceptability, having found eminent position on the shelves of many Universities’ and Public Libraries both at home and abroad. This volume contains twenty well edited articles covering specific areas of and practice of Education and touching, among other, on Mathematics, Science, Social Science and Educational Technology, all of which readers will find very stimulating and rewarding. IJSE continues to welcome articles from contributors along our policy guidelines. It is our hope that the standard already established will to be a propelling force behind future publications. Professor R. A. Lawal Editor-in-Chief INSTITUTE JOURNAL OF STUDIES IN EDUCATION VOL 1, NO.5. ARTICLES IN THIS ISSUE JUNE 2003 PAGE An analysis of school plant maintenance practices in Kwara State Secondary Schools -A. Y. Abdulkareem 1 The genesis of the problems confronting mathematics education in Nigeria secondary schools and the solutions to the problem -A. O. Adegboye 12 The role of Music in early childhood education -Z. A. Adesokan 24 Reactions of senior secondary school students to Islamic studies questions in Arabic Language -U. A. Ajidagba 33 The Nigerian teacher: Expectations, challenges and way forward -S. Amaele 40 Integrating formal and informal science for development: Implications for education and training - B. T. Danmole 55 Problems of using foreign instructional media in the Nigerian schools M. Fakomogbon 62 Techniques for solving adolescents’ vocational crisis R..A.E. Iheanacho 73 Relationship among cognitive styles, locus of control and academic Education Achievement of secondary school students -M.A.Kayode Effective study skills for a meaningful and purposeful polytechnic 80 education Y. Y. Muslim 93 Philosophic thought on traditional Nigerian child-rearing – An appraisal F. O. Ogunlade 102 Contemporary issues in industrial safety.-O. A. Onifade 121 Factors influencing female students’ choice of physics in selected secondary school in Ilorin metropolis —E. O. Omosewo 131 The feelings and attitudes of people about death and dying on terminal illnesses O. L. Olaitan 141 Relevance of computer technology in education research -S. A. Onasanya 15 I English language teaching and learning as a branch of applied linguistics; the example of computer Assisted language learning (CALL) -I. B. Omorodima 164 Causes of students lack of interest in Christian religious studies in harm metropolis -R.Oinotoye 175 Causes of slow curriculum and institutional change in Nigeria: A political and social-linguistic consideration -A. A. Olaoye 185 Using games to teach geometrical plane shapes at the primary school level: The examples of TESTOM -S. Salman 195 Performance enhancement strategy for educational services in Nigeria -B. Sanusi 205 THE FEELINGS AND ATTITUDES OF PEOPLE ABOUT DEATH AND DYING ON TERMINAL ILLNESSES BY L. 0. OLAITAN Abstract The research was carried out to study the feelings and attitudes of people about death and dying on terminal illnesses. The multistage sampling technique from 20 private hospitals in Ibadan was used to select 200 nurses, 140 females and 60 males. Mean (X.) and percentages were used to analyse the data collected, while the t-test statistical method was employed to lest the hypothesis formulated at a=0. 05 level of confidence. Based on the findings that no signIcant difference existed between the feelings and attitudes of people about death and dying on terminal illnesses. It was recommended that people should involve in health insurance policy, make ci “will’for their survivors, and that the government should plan the inclusion of death and dying education in school curriculum. Introduction Traditionally, the attitude of a society towards death has been a function of its religious beliefs. To the extent that theological or sacred doctrines prevail within society, death generally does not constitute an important challenge to human beings’ self-concept. The individual regards death as natural and preordained. Within such a theoretical structure, we could stand relatively secure in the knowledge that death was a personal matter between God and ourselves. According to Fulton (1964), “the very purposefulness of his death placed him at the center of existence and elevated him above all other creatures as the principal subject of creation”. Death could be confronted openly, spoken of freely, and treated as a natural phenomenon. The context, within which death is experienced in the United, States, and the general reaction to death, have changed dramatically within the last few decades. For example, in this count death is no longer exclusively a matter of religious concern, bu increasingly subject of scientific concern, but increasingly a subject of scientific investigation. Philosophers have assumed that death pert ins to the essence of human life, to its existential fulfillment. Moreover, the comprehended acceptance of death was considered as the prerogative of man, the very token of his freedom. Death, and only death, brought existence into its own. Its final negation was considered as the affirmation of man’s faculties and ends (Feifel, 1959). Death assumed the force of an institution which, because of its vital utility, should not be changed, even if it could perhaps be changed. The species perpetuate itself through the death of individuals; this is fact. Society perpetuates itself though the death of individuals; this is no longer a natural but an historical fact. The two facts are not equivalent. In the first proposition, death is a biological event: disintegration of organic into inorganic matter. In the second proposition, death is an institution and a value: the cohesion of the social order depends to a considerable extent on the effectiveness with which individuals comply with death and more than a natural necessity; on their willingness, even urge, to die many deaths, which are not natural; on other agreement to sacrifice themselves aiid not to fight death “too much. To Die or Not To Die Death remains a reality that relatively few people or face. We try to live as if it could not happen to us or to those whom we love. At the same time we live under a primitive shadow of fear. When the death of a parent, child, or loved one occurs, we suffer not only grief but also a sense of’ guilt for not having done more, or for past feelings and thoughts. During the present decade a new medical specialty has begun to emerge, known as thanatology, or the psychosociology of death. Nurses, physicians, and social workers are studying and attending to the psychosocial problems faced by patients who are threatened with death problems that also must be faced by patients who are threatened with death problems that also must be faced by their families, friends, and associates. The individual realizes the de is inevitable. It is a phenomenon associated with life itself. What 0C do5’t know is when or how one’s own death will occur. Many intellectualize death as if it pertains t another death, and not to themselves. This is because we are basically future-oriented, planning the future as if we will live forever. While one is free of illness and the threat limited future, such behaviour is normal. It does not imply denial. However, as losses of functions or parts of the body death and denial sometimes become fused together. Denial for many individuals is a coping mechanism, one that enables them to guard against the threat of death or dying The terminal phase of life The person judge by the physician to be terminally ill or at risk, and not simply old and sick. The experienced physicians know what to expect with regard to the progress of illness, although they are sometimes surprised. There are some of the physician situations of the dying person and some of the options that remains to the physician Purpose of the Study The study was conducted find out the feelings and attitudes of terminal illnesses. Also, to determine their behaviour towards the terminally ill patients. Hypothesis There will be no significant difference between feelings and attitudes of people about death and dying on terminal illness Method and Materials Two hundred nurses, 60 males and 140 females were randomly selected from 20 private hospitals in Ibadan. Each of them responded to the questionnaire individually to guide against possibility of being influenced by others and the copies of the questionnaire were collected the same day. Mean (X) and percentage (%) ‘1vere used to analyze the data collected while t-test statistical method was employed to test the hypothesis formulated at ct 0.05 level of significance. Results The findings have thrown more light on the feelings and attitudes of nurses toward death. Table I showed that 20 (10%) of respondents would feel comfortable having been determined that they are terminally ill and hear that they will die in the next three months. This is line with Fletcher’s statement in Bumside (1980) that, it is the living that fear death, not the dying. One hundred and eight (90%) respondents would not feel comfortable to hear such news that they would die, this shows that, death is an unpleasant thing. Kalish (1967) said that, the expressions of sense of impe:. Jing death may not be “hear” or believed by the listener. One hundred and sixty (80%) of the respondents would suffer from trouble of falling asleep (insomnia) and only 40 (20%) will not suffer insomnia. This can be related to the Kubler-Ross’s second stage of dying in which the person will be full of anger, rage, anxiety, restlessness and general irritation. Also, 120 (60%) would feel nervous and anxious most of the time, while 80 (40%) would not. This can be correlated with the above sentence in which Kubler-Ross stated that anger, rage, anxiety, etc, are parts of what take place at the second stage of dying. One hundred and forty (70%) would suffer from lack of sexual desire and 60 (30%) would not, this is indicative of not being in mood to engage in fun play. This• means that, “covert reaction determines overt reaction” One hundred and forty (70%) would not agree that they would die at that time but 60 (30%) would not deny it. This denial is in line with the first stage of death by Kubler-Ross, i.e. Denial during which statemént like, “no!, not me!, I rebuke it!, you are lying!, I cannot die like that!, etc” will fill the mouth of the dying person. Only 80 (40%) would pass through Kubler-Ross’s second stage dying, and 120 (60%) would not be angry, this is perhaps, the r’ population know what it is to be suffering from terminal illness before the death comes. Although, 160 (8 0%) would persuade God to delay their death, while only 40 (20%) would not bother themselves. This is in line with the Kubler-Ross’s third stage of dying during which the individual is bargaining with death. Furthermore 140 (70%) would suffer depression and 60 (3 0%) would not, this is synonymous with what happens in Kubler-Ross’s fourth stage of dying in which the individual is full of depression, at this stage individual waits for the last stage which is acceptance which isthe last phase of dying will definitely come to every individual Wirdmill, 19992). Lastly, 192 (96%) would say death is a transitional state to the great beyond according to their religions while, only 8 (4%) would not believe such. This may be because most of the respondents are either Christians or Muslims and no atheist was among the respondents. TABLE 1: RESPONSES OF THE FEELINGS OF NURSES TOWARDS DEATH S/N Items: Suppose you have been determined that you will de in the Yes % Yes No % No next 3 months due to a terminally ill disease you are suffering from: 1. Would you feel conformable? 20 10 180 90 2. Would you suffer form trouble of falling asleep (insomnia)? 160 80 40 20 3. Would you be feeling nervous and anxious most of the time? 120 60 80 40 4. Would you suffer from lack of sexual desired? 140 70 60 30 5. Would you deny the fact that you will die in that time? 140 70 60 30 6. Would you suffer from irritability or bursts of anger? 80 40 120 60 7. Would you try to persuade God, the physician or other power to 160 80 40 20 140 70 60 30 180 90 20 10 192 96 8 4 133.2 66.6 66.8 33.4 delay your death? 8. Would you suffer low spirit or depression or sadness most of the time? 9. Would you finally accept the death if the time has obviously come and has less emotional pain and less impulse to contest fate? 10. Would you say death is a transitional state to the great beyond according to your religion? Mean (x) Ii table 2 below, 156 (78%) would like to be using the best of their clothes of properties before they die, while 44 (22%) would not. This may be because, their attitudes are full of enjoying their wealth before any other person will come and take over things. One hundred and sixty-four (82%) believed in spending all they have on their unpromising health status, while those that want to spend what they have will not support euthanasia and neither would they support the statement “let me die, have lived long enough” One hundred and four (52%) would stay indoor most of the time. having heard such news and 96 (48%) would continue to go out as usual. This shows that whether outdoor or indoor death will come when it will come. In the issue of “living will”, 100 (50%) each supported it and c not support respectively. It is believed that those that would make “living will’ don’t fear death. Also, in making a “will” for the survivors 196 (98%) supported this, but only4 (2%) opposed this. This means making a will for the survivors is paramount in the mind of the nurse before dying and after death. One hundred and eighty-four (92%) would refuse to eat having heard such news while only 16 (80%) would co to eat normally. Those that would not eat is in line with those who belie’ in voluntary and direct euthanasia that can be termed, suicidal in legal terms (Udoh, 2000). Surprisingly, no one out of the 200 respondents was in support mercy killing. (euthanasia), all the 200 (100%) were against it. Mercy killing in African context is not yet a reality. Sixteen (8%) would prefer to die in the hospice, while 196 (92%) would prefer in the hospital. This shows that, nurses know the value of hospital care and prefer to die the perhaps there could be any other new technology in medicine to take care of the formally proclaimed terminal illness. Furthermore, as in the great your previous sentence, no one can say, “let me die, I have lived long enough” as the whole 200 (100%) were against the statement. This result is contrary to a statement in Burnside (1980) that, “let me die, I have lived long enough” All the 200 (100%) would not want their body to be cremated after death, that is perhaps the cultural believe is that whosoever died should be buried according to their religions’ rites. One hundred (50%) would prefer that their status should be made for commemoration for heroic measure probably for remembrance and also 100 (50%) do not want such, believing that after death nobody knows what takes place afterwards. TABLE 2: RESPONSES ON THE ATTITUDES OF THE NURSES TOWARDS DEATH S/N Items: Suppose you have been determined that you will de in Yes % Yes No % No 156 78 44 22 164 82 36 18 the next 3 months due to a terminally ill disease you are suffering from: 11 Would you like to be using the best of your clothes or properties 12. Would you like to continue to spend all you have may be you might recover? 13. Would you stay indoor most or all of the time? 104 52 96 48 14. Would you like to make a “living will” that you should not be 100 50 100 50 kept alive by artificial means inc case you are unconscious? 15. Would you like to make a ‘will’ for your surviviors? 196 98 4 2 16. Would you refuse to eat or drink till the time comes? 184 92 16 8 17. Would you want your doctor to help you to die a good death 0 0 200 100 (euthanasia) 18. Would you prefer to die in the hospice rather than hospital? 16 81 196 92 19. Can you say “let me die; I have lived long enough”? 0 0 200 100 20. Would you like to be cremated rather than being buried? 0 0 200 100 21. Would you like your status to be made as commemoration for 100 500 100 50 heroic measure? 22. Would you like to be buried with the best of your clothes? 32 16 168 84 23. Would you like your burial ceremony to be elaborate> 176 88 24 12 24. Would you like your body to be embalmed and display for lying 24 12 176 88 156 878 44 22 106.12 53.07 in-state 25. Would you like to donate any of your organs or whole body for other? Mean (x) 93.88 46.93 Only 32 (16%) would like to be buried with the best of their clothes 168 (84%) would not bother on whatever type of clothe used to bury them. One hundred and seventy-six (88%) would want their burial ceremony to be elaborate, and only 24 (12%) would not want such believing that money spent on burial ceremony is a waste and the former believed that it is necessary to display wealth believing that, this indicates how usefulness and important the person that died was. Twenty-four (12%) would want tpeir body to be embalmed and display for lying-in-state, while 176 (88%) would not want it because it is believed that it would forth sorrowful moments for the dependants while in lying-in-state position. Finally 157 (78%) of the nurses would like their body organs to be used on others, who might need them either for researches or other purposes, but only 44 (22%) detested such attitude, which is indicative of not wanting their body or the organs to be used for any other purposes rather than burying. In table 3, since the calculated t-value of 24.3 58 is less than the critical value of 2.069. the hypothesis formulated was hereby rejected showing that significant difference existed between feelings and attitudes of people about death and dying on terminal illnesses. Thus, people’s feelings affect their attitudes on many issues. TABLE 3: HYPOTHESIS TESTING ON FEELINGS AND ATTITUDES OF NURSES ON DEATH AND DYING ON TERMINAL ILLNESSES. N = 200 Variables Means (X) SD Feelings 133.2 4.9447 Attitudes 93.88 1.5528 Cale t Value 24.358 Decision on HO Rejected Conclusion and Recommendations The feelings of people having been determined that they will die in the next three months after the confirmation that they are terminally ill were in diversity. While some sets of people believed that “death is a necessary end and is inevitable”, other denied this saying that, it would be better for all terminal diseases to have a curative measures. Death is a threat to some people especially the young and the well-do successful ones who want to remain alive to enjoy the adulthood life with their wealth. However, the religious belief has made some people to perceive death as a transitional state to a better-unknown realm. Some nurses can death as a threat, others see it as a natural phenomenon that cannot be Majorities of them believe in life after death and they perceived earth as a transition to the great beyond in accordance with their various sects. It is hereby recommended that people should involve in health policy to help cater for themselves and family members. They gild also plan and make a “will” for their survivors. People should prepare for their deaths as they prepare for any other things in life the government should plan to include death and dying education school curriculum and it should be embraced by all. REFERENCES Bower, M. K., Jackson, E., Knight, J., & Le-Shan, L. (1964). Counselling the dying. New York; Thomas Nelson & Sons. Burnside I. M. (1980). Psychological nursing care of the aged. (2 Ed.), New York: McGraw Hill Inc. Copperman, H. (1983). Dying at home. John Wiley & Sons. Feifel, H. (1959). The meaning of death. New York: McGraw Hill. Feigenberg, L. (1977). Terminalvard. Stockholm: Liber Larmedal Lund. Fulton, R. (1964). Death and the self. Journal of Religion and Health. 3,4, 359. Hinton, J. (1972). Dying. Baltimore: Penguin Books. Ibid, (n.d.) p. 74. Kalish R. A. (1967). Social distance and the dying. Community A. Health Journal, 2 152. Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On death and dying. New York: Macmillan. Sage, W. (1978). Choosing the good death. In Harold Cox (E Focus, Aging,p. 1 Connecticut: Harris Ltd. Shneidman, E. S. (1974). Deaths of man. New York: New York Time Book Co. Udoh, C. 0. (2000). Deathand dying education. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publ. Nig. Ltd. Weisnian, A. (1972). On dyinand denying. Ne’4- York: F Publications. Windmill, V. (1992). Ageing today: positive approach\to car& elderly people. London: Edward Armold Publications.