FRANCE & EUROPE Th. Saint Paul, 2007

Th. Saint Paul, 2007
European integration
profound influence on the French
businesses to become more competitive:
new challenges, opportunities offered by
such a huge market.
 In 1993 the principle of free movement
of people, goods, services and capital
=the Single Market economic area
376 million consumers to French
companies, benefiting all sectors of the
national economy.
27 countries, 2007
Norway and Switzerland are
Austria, Belgium,
NOT in the EU, why?
Bulgaria ,Cyprus,
Czech Republic,
Denmark ,Estonia
Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Ireland,
Italy,Latvia, Lithuania
Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands ,Poland,
Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden, United
Former Yugoslav
Republic of
Turkey (issue??)
Key dates of the European Union
1951: the European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC). The Six: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of
1957: the European Economic Community (EEC) and
the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom).
1962:The first community policy comes into force:
the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).
1968:Customs Union is set up between the Six.
1973: Europe of the Nine: Denmark, the United
Kingdom and Ireland join the EEC.
1979: EMS aiming to stabilize the exchange
rates between European currencies.
First election of members to the European
Parliament by direct universal suffrage.
1981: Europe of the Ten: Greece enters
the EEC.
1986: Europe of the Twelve: Spain and
Portugal join in their turn.
The Single European Act =single internal
market by 1993 =free movement of people,
capital, goods and services
1992: The Maastricht Treaty marks the
beginning of Economic and Monetary
Union (EMU) and extends the powers of the
European Parliament.
1995: Europe of the Fifteen: with the
entry of Austria, Finland and Sweden,
-Norway having rejected membership by
1997:Signature of the Treaty of
1998: Opening of negotiations with a view to
the enlargement of the European Union.
1999: Start of the transition to the single
currency (the euro) in eleven European
2002: Euro in 13 countries (all save
Sweden, UK and Denmark) and phasing out
of the Local currencies in the EURO zone.
2004: Enlargement: +10 countries
(Republic Tcheckia, Poland, Hungary,
Slovenia, Estonia, Lituania, Lettonia,
Slovaquia, Cyprus et Malta)
2007: +2 Romania & Hungary.
Europe's Policy
1997Amsterdam Treaty, social policy/
immigration policy and employment.
EURO ZONE:Euros and cents since
1 January 2002
European Central Bank
16: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands,
Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.
Sweden, has a de facto opt out
 Montenegro and microstates—Monaco, San Marino and
the Vatican
EU LAWS: characteristics
Collective initiatives in areas:
 The environment
=laws imposed on governments down to
the local level = common actions and
projects in line with the laws.(e.g.
protection of people (education –degrees,
anti- human trafficking laws,….clean air,
clean water acts etc.).
France in European Union
Agriculture and CAP : Common
Agricultural Policy:
Biggest producer of sugar-beet in the
EU(European Union) second biggest worldwide
the world's second biggest wine producer
EU's second biggest and world's fifth biggest
milk producer
Biggest producer of cereals in the EU and fifth
biggest worldwide.
European Union green laws: Greener
agriculture/ movement for Organic Farming
Primary sector:
 Grants/subsidies:
The European Agricultural Guidance and
Guarantee Fund,responsible for managing
the CAP (Common Agricultural Policy)
aid into rural development, modernisation
of farms and land improvements.
support to agriculture in mountain regions
and other disadvantaged areas.
Anti-globalization? Or
Alternative globalization?
In French:
(translated as antiglobalization)
Secondary sector: industry.
free movement of goods and capital has
given French companies a significant
boost and has resulted in:
higher investment rates, a high level of
financial concentration
increase in the number of subsidiaries of
French companies established abroad.
Increase in number of subsidiaries of
foreign companies in France.
European legislation on pollution (norms
ISO 14000) is strict.
The tertiary sector,
benefited from Europeanisation.
Services: Grants/aid for transport
networks, co-funding major civil
engineering projects.
Judicial and technical harmonisation, free
competition helped modernizing public
transport systems.
Growth of tourism in France, where four
fifths of visitors are Europeans.
Revitalising of banking sector
new energies,
new jobs
incentives for
municipalities and
Recycling laws
European laws :
Recycling tax
Eco –Tax
(e.g. electrical
appliances are
recycled, eco-tax
incl. in cost)
EU ( & all its
signed the
Protocol to
curb global
EUROPE websites
European Institutions/Policies