PATHOLOGY: A Career in Medicine Pathology is the study of the nature of

A Career in Medicine
Pathology is the study
of the nature of
disease - its causes,
development and
Career Opportunities:
• Diagnostician
• Teacher
• Scientific Researcher
The Pathologist in
Patient Care
 Identifies diseases in cells, tissues
& fluids of the body
 Analyzes gross and microscopic
structural changes in tissues caused
by disease
 Examines cells to aid in disease
 Provides and interprets laboratory
information to help solve diagnostic
problems and monitor effects of
Anatomic Pathology:
Surgical Pathology
Analysis of Biopsies and
Surgical Specimens
Surgically Removed Tissue
Frozen Section/
Gross and Microscopic
Diagnosis and Prognostic
A Case Study in Lung Cancer
 46 year-old man
 Heavy smoker
Complains of:
Chronic cough
Chest pain
•Physical and Lab Findings:
Elevated Blood Pressure
Elevated Serum Calcium
A Case Study in Lung Cancer
CT imaging reveals mass
in right lung
Patient taken to surgery
Mass biopsied and sent for
frozen section
Microscopic evaluation yields:
- Precise diagnosis
- Extent of disease
- Information needed to
determine course of action
Anatomic Pathology:
A Case Study in Thyroid Cancer
Patient with thyroid mass receives a tracer
dose of radioactive iodine, which reveals a
“cold” nodule
Pathologist performs fine- needle
aspiration (FNA)
Surgeon and oncologist determine
course of action based on
pathologist’s FNA diagnosis
Mass removed during surgery
Anatomic Pathology:
Autopsy provides insight into
disease processes and the
influence of therapy on disease:
 Reveals cause of death
 May detect previously undiagnosed
genetic disorders – information that
may benefit living family members
 Provides feedback to physicians
involved in patient care:
1. Accuracy of diagnoses
2. Effectiveness of treatment
Clinical Pathology
Clinical pathology specialty
laboratories include:
 Hematology
 Microbiology
 Immunology
 Clinical Chemistry
 Toxicology
 Transfusion Medicine
Pathologists serve as consultants
to other physicians by:
 recommending appropriate tests
 interpreting test results
Molecular Pathology
•DNA sequencing to identify
infectious agents
•Molecular identification of
chromosomal rearrangements
•Genetic alterations
•Prenatal screening for hemoglobin
disorders and metabolic diseases
•Genetic susceptibility to cancer
The Pathologist as a
•Interprets laboratory results
•Advises physicians on
appropriate diagnostic tests
•Contributes to medical and
surgical patient management
•Serves on hospital committees
(e.g. quality assurance, blood
utilization, infection control)
•Updates physicians about
laboratory medicine in
Continuing Medical Education
The Pathologist as a
•Provides instruction to
medical students, pathology
residents, graduate
•Provides instruction to
students in allied health
science training programs
•Provides instruction in
local, regional or national
continuing medical
education programs
The Pathologist in
Investigates the causes and mechanisms
of diseases by:
•Tracing new diseases to their origins
•Improving diagnostic approaches to
•Identifying the genetic basis for patient
response to treatments
•Identifying new pathogenic bacteria and
other infectious agents
•Identifying genes involved in specific
Pathology Training for
Medical Students
•General and Systemic
Pathology courses
•Elective opportunities for
senior students
•One-year fellowships in
pathology, usually
following the second year
of medical school
Graduate Medical
Education in Pathology
Residency Programs:
Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
Anatomic Pathology
Clinical Pathology
•Blood banking/transfusion medicine
•Chemical pathology
•Forensic pathology
•Medical microbiology
•Molecular genetic pathology
•Pediatric pathology
Pathology Practice Options
•Community Hospitals
•Private/Group Practice
•Health Care Facilities
•Independent Laboratories
•Medical Schools
•Federal Government Agencies
•State Government
Intersociety Council for Pathology Information (ICPI)
American Society for Clinical Pathology ( ASCP)
American Society for Investigative Pathology (ASIP)
Association of Pathology Chairs (APC)
College of American Pathologists (CAP)
United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology
of Pathology
in Pathology
Listing of Residency Training
Programs, Fellowships, and
Post-Sophomore Fellowships.
Print-on-Demand available for the full
Directory or Residencies-only or
Fellowships-only versions. Order
online at
The Directory is also available online
and is fully searchable by institution,
region/state, and specialization.
Biomedical Physician Scientist Careers
Published by the American Society for Investigative Pathology with support from ICPI
•What is a Physician Scientist in
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine?
•Why Choose Academic Pathology and
Laboratory Medicine?
•Is a Physician Scientist Career for Me?
Choosing a Training Path
•Choosing a Program
•Choosing a Supervisor
•Searching for Your First Job
•Launching your Physician Scientist
•Tenure, Promotions and the First Ten
•The Institutional Challenge to Train and
Maintain Physician Scientists
Journey To Success:
Career Pathways for Biomedical Scientists in Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Published by the American Society for Investigative Pathology, with support from ICPI
•What is a Biomedical Scientist in Pathology
and Laboratory Medicine?
•Why Pursue Pathology as a Career in
Biomedical Science?
•Is a Biomedical Career in Pathology for Me?
•Non-Traditional Careers
•Searching For Your First Job
Intersociety Council for
Pathology Information (ICPI)
Intersociety Council for Pathology Information (ICPI)
9650 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20814-3993 (USA)
Phone: 301-634-7200
Fax: 301-634-7990
Email: [email protected]