Social Marketing: More than Fear, more than Information, and more than Health Mike Basil University of Lethbridge (CANADA) and University of Wollongong
(Extended Parallel Process Model)
EXTENDED PARALLEL PROCESS MODEL Kim Witte
For a message to be effective, the receiver should perceive – (1) Severity -- Is it serious or severe? – (2) Susceptibility -- Can it happen to me? – (3) Self-efficacy -- Can I do response? – (4) Response efficacy -- Does the response work? 7
• Threat is low – there is NO processing of the message • Threat is high, efficacy is LOW, – people CONTROL THEIR FEAR and ignore the message. • Threat is high, efficacy is HIGH, – people CONTROL THE DANGER and protect themselves. 8
Hypothesis Threat messages with ALL 3 factors: severity, susceptibility AND efficacy will be more effective than messages with only some of these factors
Low Severity Low Susceptibility Low Response Efficacy High Self-Efficacy 10
High Severity High Susceptibility Low Response Efficacy High Self-Efficacy 11
High Severity High Susceptibility High Response Efficacy High Self-Efficacy 12
Online Experiment • Experiment was conducted online • Males 18-25 in British Columbia – Posters in their workplace – Announcements from instructors at vocational technical colleges.
Measurement • Behavior intention items – If I saw this ad, it would make me more likely to do what the ad wants me to.
– I will pay more attention to the issue the ad is talking about in the future.
– I would like to find out more about the topic the ad is talking about.
Comparing means across conditions 5,7 5,5 5,3 5,1 4,9 4,7 4,5 4,3 Low Susceptibility: Low Self-Efficacy High Susceptibility: Low Self-Efficacy Low Susceptibility: High Self-Efficacy High Susceptibility: High Self-Efficacy Low Severity High Severity 15
Conclusions • Fear works best with susceptibility and efficacy – Providing SOLUTIONS – May overcome motivations to avoid work safety • Employers can use fear for young employees IF they ensure adequate training (self-efficacy) 16
Application issues Focus groups: Benefits and barriers for safety behaviors Incentives?
Fruit and Vegetables
Fruit and Vegetable Consumption • Yearly food consumption (FAO) • Fruit: – England: 91kg – Italy: 140kg • Vegetables: – England: 89kg – Italy: 180kg
Fruit & Veg consumption British citizens At home: 2.7 fruits & veggies per day On holiday in Italy: 6 per day
Fruit & Veg consumption British citizens At home: 2.7 fruits & veggies per day On holiday in Italy: 6 fruits & veggies Back home: ???
More than Communication and Advertising
'Little Pinky' road ad a big success The controversial "Little Pinky" anti-speeding ads could be the most successful road safety campaign NSW has ever had.
The advertisements, in which people wiggle their little finger at speeding male P-platers, has sparked outrage - but appears to be working, News Limited reports.
A survey testing the ads' impact shows 63 per cent of young males - the campaign's target audience admit it encourages them to stick to the speed limit.
More than 75 per cent of people believe it has increased
More than Health…
Environment and Climate Change
Diversity and “isms”
Conclusion • Social Marketing IS NOT: – TELLING people what to do… • It IS: – discovering barriers, – providing solutions, – and making things possible.