Judaism Oct. 24. Monday: www.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/TalmudMap/MG.html Also read the links to Masorah Chapter numbers Targum (a few links) Sedrah Wednesday: Breslauer chapter 4: Gemara raise the Question: When is it evening? Tanna mentioned the offerings: Why? Amora assumes that Tanna knew that evening was when the time the stars come out. Answer: to teach something else: the time of the priests ate the offerings. A digression follows: Ritual impurity Does the coming of evening remove some impurity? answer: Yes Back to the point…Mishnah refers to offerings But Another text t refers to a poor man’s evening meal. How can this be? Solution: both events were simultaneous. Later discussions “RASHI” R. Solomon ben Isaac 1040 – 1105: France Interpreted Talmud words in order of appearance. “When is it morning? When you can see the white spots in poorly died wool.” TOSAFOT “Additions” to Rashi’s commentary. 12-13 century: Rashi wrong: Another commandment: wear fringes on garments: blue and white. When you can tell these apart. Try to bring all of Talmud into a consistent whole. Other commentaries Medieval to renaissance. Sometimes shows differing cultural traits of Jews in different parts of the world. Later Glosses Up to late 19th century Cross-references etc. Oral Torah Tannaim Mishnah Amoraim Talmuds Rabbinic writings Mishnah Talmud. Midrash 2 kinds of writing Halakhah = legal discussions. Aggadah (Haggadah) = non-legal Aggadah Non-legal portions of Oral Torah. Stories, Midrash Moral lessons etc. Example of Aggadah from Talmud. Shabbath 77. Rav Judah said in Rav’s name: The Holy One … did not create a single thing in all his world which has no purpose. He created the snail as a remedy for a scab… A serpent is a remedy for a boil. What is the treatment? One black and white serpent … boiled to a pulp and then rubbed in.. Halakhah: “the way” Legal discussions in Oral Torah Mitzvah / Mitzvot Commandments 365 prohibitions + 248 requirements (248 = body parts) ----613 613 = TORaH. T is 400 + W (o) is 6 + R is 200 + H is 5 = 611 + 2 = 613 Extra 2 come from commandments which precede creation. I am the Lord, your God + You shall have no other gods before Me. 613 Some overlap between + and – mitzvot, Some very plain, others come from talmudic interpretation. Copmmadment to say grace after meals is inferred from "and you will eat and be satisfied and bless the Lord your God“. Gezeirah, is the “Fence” Mitzvah: no work on Sabbath so do not touch implements of work Takkanah is a Non-biblical law, such as the Candles at Hanukkah Regional variation in the Takkanah Minhag is a Binding Custom such as Extra day of holidays outside of Israel, even after proper calendars made. Also the wearing of Kippas is a minhag. Halakhah is comprised of Mitzvot Gezeirah Takkanah Minhag Some characteristics of Halakhah Law, not legalism Self – Transformation is the goal Dignity not Dogma Spirit, not letter of Torah “Eye for an eye” means compensation not mutilation Golden rule: Concerned with others, not yourself = love and fear of God Emunah, Faith Righteous live by faith Non-esoteric? Often against esoteric speculation. but still, every letter in Torah holds meaning.