Oct. 20 For Friday http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/TalmudMap/Gemara .html http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/TalmudPage.html Tannaim • Hillel • Shammai – Both a bit b.ce. – Two “schools”: ideas debated in Mishnah / Talmud – Hillel position usually accepted. Tosefta: Eduyoth I. “There will come a time when a man will look for one of the laws of the Roah ;and will not find it, or one of the laws of the rabbis, and will not find it …. Then they will say, ‘Let us start with Hillel and Shammai’” Tosefta: An early collection of Oral Torah discussions Often quoted in Talmud to help understand Mishnah • R. Akiva Famed Sage. Thought S. Bar Kochba was Messiah. Executed ca. 135 bce. - ehad…. (“One”) R. Akiva used to say: • • • • • the tradition is a fence around the Torah; tithes are a fence around wealth; vows are a fence around abstinence; silence is a fence around wisdom … Everything is forseen, but there is freedom of choice; the world is judged by grace, but all is according to the good or evil of works • Mishnah, Avoth 3. Roman Rule • 2nd century to 5th century • “NASI” or prince, head of Sanhedrin. Johanan ben Zakkai • Nasi = “prince” • Gathers scholars after 70 ce. Replacing the temple: • Once, as Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai was coming forth from Jerusalem, R. Joshua followed after him and beheld the Temple in ruins. “Woe unto us!” R. Joshua cried, “that this, the place where the iniquities of Israel were atoned for, is laid waste!” “My son,” Rabban Yohanan said to him, “be not grieved: we have another atonement as effective as this. And what is it? It is acts of loving-kindness, as it is said, ‘For I desire mercy and not sacrifice’. Avot Rabbi Natan, ch. 6 • See the biblical verses: • Hosea 6:6 Micah 6:6-8 Psalm 51:16-17 Judah HaNasi • Judah the Prince. • “RABBI” • 2nd-3rd century. • Instrumental in Early ORAL TORAH. Early Discussions • Midrash • Mishnah Midrash • Interpretation of biblical passage • Often very inventive Write these words; in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel (Exodus 34:27) • Midrash: When God … gave the Torah to Israel, he gave it to Moses in order— Bible, Mishnah, Talmud … “Write these words” refers to the Bible; “in accordance with these words” applies to the Mishnah and Talmud which keep Israel separate from the heathen (Exodus Rabbah 24.) Jesus & Midrash • Have you not read in the book of Moses … God said to him, “I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.” He is not God of the dead, but of the living.” Mark 12:27 • “Midrash” was a common tool for religious teaching”. Mishnah • Discusses “HALACHAH” Jewish Law. • HEBREW • Uses Bible, but does not discuss it directly. • NOT essays, but discussions. Legitimization Oral Torah has same source as Written Torah God Moses … Sages Hillel + Shammai J. b. Zakkai Mishnah Late 2nd C. edited developed until 12th Century –6 “ORDERS” – 63 “TRACTATES” • Chapters • Sections “Mishnah” http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal /TalmudMap/Mishnah.html – HEBREW – 1st -3nd century C.E. http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal /TalmudMap/Mishnah.html MISHNAH: continued to attract commentaries: Now traditional to print the MISHNAH along with respected commentaries made in Middle Ages.