Autodesk Sustainable Design Curriculum

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Autodesk Sustainable Design Curriculum
Lesson One - Sustainable Design: Overview, History, and Introduction
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What is Sustainability and Sustainable Development?
What Are the Main Sustainability Challenges That Society Faces Today?
Why is the Design and Construction of the Built Environment so Important to
Achieving Goals of Sustainability?
Information Models Enable Sustainable Design Simulations
What is a Model?
A Brief History of Architectural and Engineering Modeling
Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) to Sustainable Design
The Interaction of Science and Law in the Modeling of Sustainable Design
The Emergence and Evolution of a Sustainable Building Code
Modeling Carbon Neutral Buildings
© 2009 Autodesk
Sustainability
Meeting the needs of the
present while improving the
ability of future generations to
meet their own needs.
Sustainability
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Design Innovation
Sustainable Design
Sustainable Design
Energy
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Minimize operating energy
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Utilize renewable energy
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Select and design site
Potable supply for occupants
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Reduce water use
Non-potable supply for processes
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Reclaim gray water
Storm water runoff
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Manage Hydraulics
and Hydrology (H&H)
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Implement low impact
development
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Seek renewable sources
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Minimize embodied measures
Lighting and equipment
Heating, cooling, and ventilation
Occupant processes
Water
Materials
Site work
Structure, envelope, and finishes
Furnishings and equipment
© 2009 Autodesk
Sustainability: Graphical Models
Left: image by Iacchus, Sunray, WikiMedia Commons, Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 License, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
Right: Image by Johann Dréo, WikiMedia Commons, Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 License, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/
© 2009 Autodesk
Sustainability: Graphical Models
Sustainability Pattern Map, 2009, courtesy ConservationEconomy.net, Ecotrust
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What are the main sustainability challenges that
society faces today?
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Mitigating Global Warming and Associated Climate Change While
Meeting the Increasing Needs for Energy
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Reversing the Loss of Biodiversity
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Maintaining and Improving Access to Fresh Water
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Maintaining and Improving Access to Healthy and Affordable Food
through Sustainable Agriculture
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Maintaining and Expanding Critical Infrastructure that Mitigates
Environmental Impacts on Human Health and Improves the
Quality of Human Life
© 2009 Autodesk
What are the main sustainability challenges that
society faces today?
Mitigating Global Warming and Associated Climate Change While
Meeting the Increasing Needs for Energy
Left image: Solar Two, a 10-megawatt central receiver power tower that operated in Daggett, CA., Photo by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Right image: 4 Times Square, a 48-story New York City skyscraper at the corner of Broadway and 42nd St, featuring a photovoltaic skin. Image Credit:: Kiss + Cathcart – Architects, courtesy of
the US Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
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How will global warming possibly affect CA and DC?
7 m Sea Level Rise in CA and DC
Lincoln Memorial
SF Bay Area
Port of Oakland
Washington, DC
Image courtesy of Google Maps
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What are the main sustainability challenges that
society faces today?
Reversing Loss of Biodiversity
Bleached Coral, image Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech
Healthy Coral Reef Image courtesy of NOAA CCMA Biogeography Team. National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce
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What are the main sustainability challenges that
society faces today?
Maintaining and Expanding Access to Fresh Water
Aerial map of Miramar Water Treatment Plant Project with contract phase overlays, by L.
Robin, 2009, courtesy The City of San Diego, California
© 2009 Autodesk
What are the main sustainability challenges that
society faces today?
Maintaining and Improving Access to Healthy and Affordable Food
through Sustainable Agriculture
Stainless Steel Grain Silo, 2008, Iowa,
courtesy. FACE, The National Institute for
Occupational Health and Safety, CDC
Nubian Granary, image courtesy of Institute
of Anthropology and Archaeology The
Academy of Humanities, Poland
Granary, Potter County, Pennsylvania, early 20th
century, image courtesy Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,
Office of Administration, Human Resources
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What are the main sustainability challenges that
society faces today?
Maintaining and Expanding Critical Infrastructure that Mitigates
Environmental Impacts on Human Health and Improves the Quality
of Human Life
Sustainable Design Can Improve Public Health
The US Centers For Disease Control has identified five main public health aspects of the
built environment for designers to consider:
• How land-use design strategies that reduce reliance on the automobile can lead to
improvements of air quality and respiratory health;
• How the design of the built environment can promote physical activity;
• How the design of the built environment can reduce the number of pedestrian
injuries and deaths, particularly among children;
• How the choices communities make about the built environment can improve
mobility and the quality of life for their elderly and disabled residents;
• The ways that various land-use decisions affect community water quality,
sanitation, and the incidence of disease outbreaks.
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What are the main sustainability challenges that
society faces today?
Maintaining and Expanding Critical Infrastructure that Mitigates
Environmental Impacts on Human Health and Improves the Quality
of Human Life
Preventing Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
SBS is a combination of ailments usually associated with an individual's place of work or residence.
Most of SBS is related to poor indoor air quality, which can be frequently traced to flaws in the
design, maintenance or operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.
The most notable examples of SBS are the results of mold, microbial, and chemical contaminations.
Other contributing factors of SBS often relate to the design of the built environment, and may
include:
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Substandard or inappropriate lighting (including the absence of or only limited access to
natural sunlight)
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Bad acoustics or infrasound pollution
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Badly designed furnishings, furniture, and equipment (e.g. computer monitors, photocopiers,
etc.)
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Inattention to ergonomic issues
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Why is the design and construction of the built environment so
important to achieving goals of sustainability?
In the US, buildings account for:
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65.2% of total US primary energy use
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30% of total US Greenhouse Gas emissions
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40% of global raw materials use (3B Tons/Yr)
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12% of fresh water use
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136M Tons/Yr of waste (approx 2.8lbs/person/day)
The root causes of our current economic, social and environmental problems
stem directly from the philosophy that has historically driven the methods and
means of development, especially our choice of energy sources.
Current development practices in most areas of the world frequently use large
amounts of fossil fuel to transform undeveloped areas, or previously developed
areas and their surrounding agricultural and forest landscapes, into sprawling,
paved-over suburban hardscapes that are dependent on automobiles for their
viability.
© 2009 Autodesk
Why Is the Design and Construction of the Built
Environment so Important to Achieving Goals of
Sustainability?
The practice of sustainable design of the built environment
reverses destructive trends by:
• emphasizing a human-scaled, walkable approach to
development;
• emphasizing energy efficiency;
• using renewable energy sources whenever possible;
• supporting and leveraging ecosystem services at every step
of the process, from design through fabrication and
construction of energy, water, communications, and
transportation infrastructures to the habitation of buildings,
cities and whole landscapes.
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Information Models Enable
Sustainable Design Simulations
Educational Campus Building
Energy Use Simulation
Educational Campus Building
Daylighting Simulation
Lake Ecology Simulation
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Sustainable Design Simulations Run on Information
Models and Databases
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XML and IFCs have emerged as sustainable design information modeling
standards.
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Sustainable Design Simulations Run on Information
Models and Databases
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A wide variety of graphical information modeling formats can be used.
An information model of a door, using the International
Framework for Dictionaries (IFD) modeling framework
(From “Ifd:IFD in a Nutshell” dev.ifd-library.org By Lars Bjørkhaug
and Håvard Bell
SINTEF Building and infrastructure)
http://dev.ifd-library.org/images/8/8d/Ontology.png
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A diagram of a recorded performance of a violin concerto, using
the ABC model language.
(from “Business Unusual:How "Event-Awareness" May Breathe
Life Into the Catalog?”, 2000, Carl Lagoze, Bicentennial Conference
on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium, Library of
Congress, Cornell University, Department of Computer Science)
Sustainable Design Simulations Run on Information
Models and Databases
Information models and databases can be normalized.
© 2009 Autodesk
What is a model?
A model is a representation of something else.
A model is useful if it is able to:
 Explain past observations.
 Predict future observations.
 Help control future events.
 Deliver value at a relatively low cost, especially in combination with
other models.
 Be easily proven to be false or inaccurate.
 Present simplicity, or even aesthetic appeal.
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What is a model?
Copernicus and the heliocentric model of the solar system
"Astronomer Copernicus, or Conversation with God" by Jan Matejko, 1872,
Krakуw, Poland, The Jagiellonian University Museum
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Image of heliocentric model from
Nicolaus Copernicus' “De revolutionibus
orbium coelestium”, c. 1543
What is a model? The Copernican modeling toolkit
A Motivating Problem, Imagination & Time
Logic, Arithmetic and Trigonometry
A Laboratory (his own Observatory) and
access to a Good Library
Facility with more than one language – he
read Greek and wrote in Latin and German
Drawing Skills and Tools
Physical Models
Finances (to build his own observatory)
Supportive Colleagues and Friends
Image: “Portraits of Copernicus” http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/PictDisplay/Copernicus.html
© 2009 Autodesk
Who are the sustainable designers and
how do they model their designs?
Architect = I visualize.
I draw and sculpt.
I make physical models.
I will calculate if I must, but I would rather draw or sculpt.
Engineer = I analyze.
I calculate.
I make mathematical models.
Image: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photo credit: Chris Gunn
I will draw if I must, but I would rather analyze and calculate.
© 2009 Autodesk
Architectural Modeling Tools
Analog drawing tools
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pencils, pens, and erasures
tracing paper
rulers
French curves,
right-angle ruler
compass
shape templates
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Architectural Scale Modeling
Analog Architectural modeling tools
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paper
cardboard
balsawood
cork
foam-core
plastic
lots of glue
pre-made entourage
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A Brief History of Architectural and Engineering Modeling
Architects and engineers have historically used
many different techniques to model their designs.
The drawing (plan, section, elevation, and threedimensional perspective rendering) is the most
established of the modeling methods.
Three-dimensional modeling is a human cultural
practice that is probably nearly as old as human
language, and it was actively used by ancient
Egyptian architects and engineers.
Ancient Egyptian culture achieved the
mathematical modeling skills needed to
successfully engineer the practical feats of
building massive stone temples and pyramids and
constructing a series of levees along the left bank
of the Nile River for more than 600 miles.
The Rhind Papyrus (above, circa 1650 B.C.) demonstrates knowledge of solving first order linear
equations and summing arithmetic and geometric series. The Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (circa
2000 B.C.) includes formulae for the surface area of a hemisphere and the volume of a truncated
pyramid.
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A Brief History of Architectural and Engineering Modeling
Archeological evidence suggests that during the classical Greek era,
architects did not model entire buildings in miniature, but primarily only
the sculptural details.
Roman civilization’s advances in scientific knowledge and technology
revived the practice of creating scale models.
The prominent first-century BC Roman architect, Vitruvius, discusses the
addition of engineering knowledge to the Roman architect’s toolkit, as
well as the need for skill with engineering mathematics, in his
architectural treatise “The Ten Books of Architecture.”
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A Brief History of Architectural and Engineering Modeling
There is general agreement that the architectural
scale model, as currently understood by
architects, was primarily a Renaissance invention.
The most important Renaissance advocate of the
scale model was the Italian architect Leon Battista
Alberti (1404-1472).
Alberti’s advocacy of architectural modeling was
predicated on his convictions that:
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mathematics was the common ground of art and
the sciences,
"all steps of learning should be sought from
nature," and
architects should include local knowledge and
local building practices in the design process.
Statue of Leon Battista Alberti, at the Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy. Photographed by Frieda, Wikimedia Commons. Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0
License, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/
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Architectural Modeling in the Modern Era
The Bauhaus school that emerged in Germany in the 1920’s allied itself
with the powerful new forces of industry, and by applying the practice of
creating scale models as part of product design, heralded a revival of
architectural modeling.
Today, professional model makers create accurate architectural scale
models for architects and engineers who want to assess the likely
appearance or performance of a particular design at an early stage of
development, without incurring the expense associated with a full-sized
prototype.
Architects will create less accurate models during the early stages of
design to sketch out three-dimensional design ideas and to address
massing, general circulation, and aesthetic issues.
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What Is the Purpose of the Architectural Model?
Traditional architectural scale models can answer the following five important
design questions, in decreasing order of accuracy:
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What will the building look like, both
alone and in relation to its
surroundings?
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How will the sun and artificial lights
illuminate and cast shadows on, in,
and around the interior and exterior
of the building?
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How will wind flow over, through,
and around the building?
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How will contractors construct the
building?
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Will the building stand up?
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Architectural Modeling in the Modern Era
When designers need to measure even the most rudimentary
performance metrics, for instance when allocating building floor space,
the model must be highly accurate.
Ultimately, physical architectural scale models cannot be used to
accurately simulate the behavior of the increasingly complex range of
materials and functions that modern building designers must consider.
As a result, architects must replace these paper, cardboard, and balsa
wood physical scale models with more analytically useful but less visible
and tangible mathematical models.
Advances in computer hardware and software have made it increasingly
cost-effective for architects and engineers to use digital analysis and
visualization models to do the presentation and analysis work previously
done with physical and purely mathematical models.
© 2009 Autodesk
Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) to Sustainable Design
Building Information Modeling (BIM) refers to the creation and use of
coordinated, internally consistent, computable information about a
building project during design and construction.
BIM solutions have three primary characteristics:
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They create and operate on digital databases for collaboration.
They manage change throughout those databases so that a change to any
part of the database is coordinated in all other parts.
They capture and preserve information for reuse by additional industryspecific applications.
© 2009 Autodesk
BIM is a Catalyst for Efficient and Effective Sustainable Design
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The most advanced design
technology available.
Makes information available
for analysis earlier in design
process.
Supports an improved
collaborative process.
Reduces the effort of
increasingly complex building BUILDERS
design.
Facilitates a holistic design
approach.
Enables accurate simulations
of building design
performance.
MEP SYSTEMS
ENGINEERS
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OWNERS
BUILDING
INFORMATION
MODELING
ARCHITECTS
STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERS
BIM Is a Catalyst for Collaborative Sustainable Design
OPERATIONS
RESEARCH &
MANAGEMENT
SCIENTISTS
PHYSIOLOGISTS
& MEDICAL
SCIENCTISTS
EARTH
SCIENTISTS
FACILITY MANAGERS
CIVIL
ENGINEERS
OWNERS
BUILDERS
BUILDING
INFORMATION
MODELING
ARCHITECTS
ACOUSTICAL &
LIGHTING
ENGINEERS
MANUFACTURERS
BUILDING &
MATERIAL
SCIENTISTS
© 2009 Autodesk
MEP SYSTEMS
ENGINEERS
STRUCTURAL
ENGINEERS
PSYCHOLOGISTS &
COGNITIVE
SCIENCTISTS
Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) to Sustainable Design
Mathematics for Sustainable Design Analysis, Prediction, Simulation,
Certification, and Validation
Without the use of mathematics, digital Building Information Modeling
tools would only serve designers as 3D sketch pads.
The true power of BIM for Sustainable Design rests in its ability to help
designers accurately measure, analyze, visualize, predict, simulate,
certify, and validate the performance, cost, and construction method of
a building with respect to mathematical models of real-world
phenomena.
© 2009 Autodesk
The Interaction of Science and Law in the Modeling of
Sustainable Design
The sustainable design movement of the 21st century is an outgrowth of the
modern environmental movement.
Although this movement began in the 1960s, it has its roots in the attempts
of 19th-century epidemiologists to understand and expose the costs of
public health and environmental negligence in rapidly growing urban areas
in Europe and North America.
left image: Dr. John Snow (1813-1858), British physician. He is considered to be one of the fathers of epidemiology, because of his work in tracing the source of
a cholera outbreak in Soho, England, in 1854.
right image: The original map drawn by Dr. John Snow, showing cases of cholera in the London epidemics of 1854, clustered around the locations of water
pumps.
© 2009 Autodesk
The Interaction of Science and Law in the Modeling of
Sustainable Design
One of the most influential pioneers in this area
was Rachel Carson, an American marine
biologist and nature writer whose scientific
research led to the publication of her
bestselling 1962 book Silent Spring, which
ultimately spurred a reversal in national
pesticide policy.
The scientific rigor of Carson’s argument that
chemical pesticides have detrimental effects on
the environment inspired the grassroots
environmental movement, and led to the
creation of the US Environmental Protection
Agency in 1970.
Top image: Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring. Official photo as a US Fish & Wildlife Service employee. c. 1940
Bottom image: Logo of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
© 2009 Autodesk
The Interaction of Science and Law in the Modeling of
Sustainable Design: Air Quality Laws and Models
The US Clean Air Act sets
limits on certain air
pollutants, including limits
on maximum acceptable
levels in the air anywhere in
the United States.
Regulators use atmospheric
dispersion modeling to
estimate or to predict the
downwind concentration of
air pollutants emitted from
sources such as industrial
plants and vehicular traffic.
Diagram of AERMOD’s Treatment of the Inhomogeneous Boundary Layer, from “AERMOD: DESCRIPTION OF MODEL FORMULATION, 2004 US EPA”
http://www.epa.gov/scram001/7thconf/aermod/aermod_mfd.pdf
© 2009 Autodesk
The Interaction of Science and Law in the Modeling of
Sustainable Design: Water Quality Laws and Models
The US Clean Water Act (a.k.a. the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act) and
the US Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA)
are the main federal laws that protect
water quality for Americans.
The United States Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) uses a Storm
Water Management Model (SWMM), a
dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation
model, to simulate and predict singleevent or long-term (continuous) runoff
quantity and quality from primarily
urban areas.
Top image: screen shot of the EPA SWMM 5 Graphical User Interface
Bottom image: Autodesk HLS Storm and Sanitary System Data Model
© 2009 Autodesk
Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) to Sustainable Design
Mathematics for Sustainable Design Analysis, Prediction, Simulation,
Certification, and Validation: Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)
MCDA is a discipline from the field of applied mathematics that is used to
support decision makers who are faced with making numerous and conflicting
evaluations while balancing the different objectives and interests of different
stakeholders. (Seppala et al., 2002) It is particularly well suited to the challenge
of sustainable design.
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Optimization Models
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Goal, Aspiration, or Reference Level Models
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Optimization models employ numerical scores to communicate the merit of one option in
comparison to others on a single scale.
Goal, aspiration, or reference level models are used to establish desirable or satisfactory levels
for each criterion. This type of model seeks to discover options that are closest to achieving
these goals, but not always surpassing them.
This type of model is most useful when not all of the relevant goals of the project can be met at
once.
Outranking models
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Outranking models compare the performance of two or more alternatives at a time, in terms of
each criterion, to identify the extent to which a preference for one over the other can be
asserted.
© 2009 Autodesk
The Emergence and Evolution of a Sustainable Building Code
Traditional Models of Regional Sustainable Design:
Vernacular Architecture
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For the majority of human history, designers and builders working within
the constraints of traditional building practices have relied on preexisting
structures to serve as full-scale working models on which to base their
designs for new buildings.
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Each region has a distinct, traditional approach to designing and
constructing buildings that both provide shelter and express a unique
regional aesthetic and sense of place.
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Many vernacular architectural features that appear to have simply an
aesthetic appeal are often, in fact, environmentally sensitive and highly
functional in their ability to effectively provide a safe, comfortable, and
durable built environment.
© 2009 Autodesk
The Emergence and Evolution of a Sustainable Building Code
Model Building Codes
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These codes are developed by standards organizations comprised of
industry representatives from both the public and private sectors.
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This method enables all concerned parties to pool financial and intellectual
resources to produce codes that remain current and technically sound.
New Building Materials and Technologies Accelerate the Development of
New Building Codes to Address Sustainability
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The Industrial Revolution introduced factory-produced building materials
such as steel and glass, as well as electric illumination, mechanical heating
and cooling equipment, and the abundant and cheap petrochemicals and
electrical energy needed to run them.
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These new materials required new approaches to building design, which
made many vernacular architectural traditions nearly obsolete, and
required the creation of a new, technical and legally documented building
code.
© 2009 Autodesk
The Emergence and Evolution of a Sustainable Building Code
A Model Building Code for Sustainable Design
A new Model Building Code is emerging, and, like its antecedents, it is based on
empirical evidence, but this time it includes data from a century of industrial
building practices and scientifically validated approaches.
The new “green” model building codes set a significantly higher minimum
standard for human health, productivity, well being, and environmental quality.
One of the primary drivers of this new emerging “green” building code is the
challenge of reducing humanity’s contribution to the phenomenon of global
warming.
The most widely adopted response to this challenge is to create buildings that
are “carbon neutral.”
© 2009 Autodesk
Carbon Neutral Design - A Definition
Energy consumption can be treated as a proxy for carbon emissions .
A carbon neutral design reduces a building’s consumption of energy by an
amount equal to the portion of consumed energy that is provided by
hydrocarbon fossil fuels.
Carbon neutral design intentionally reduces
emissions of two of the most abundant
greenhouse gases:
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) molecule
This reduction is achieved by using any
combination of:
 Energy efficiency
 Onsite renewable energy
 Onsite low-carbon biofuels
 Purchased renewable energy credits
© 2009 Autodesk
Methane (CH4) molecule
Carbon Footprint Varies - Regional Electricity Fuel Mix
S. California Fuel Mix (CO2: 805 lbs./MWh)
Ohio Fuel Mix (CO2: 1844 lbs./MWh)
120
Arizona Fuel Mix (CO2: 1175 lbs. /MWh)
100
100
90
Nevada
100Fuel Mix (CO2: 1552 lbs/MWh)
80
80
% Renewable
70
100
80
60
60
% Renewable
50
80
60
% Nuclear
40
40
30
60
20
% Renewable
20
40
% Nuclear
%0Fossil
Current
Current
50%
10
40
0
20
% Renewable
20
0
Current
50%
0
Current
© 2009 Autodesk
50%
0%
0%
% Fossil
% Nuclear
% Fossil
50%
0%
0%
% Nuclear
% Fossil
A Carbon Neutral Building – Simple Example
Requires a Very Efficient
Building
S. California Fuel Mix (CO2: 805 lbs./MWh)
120
{
100
40% non-carbon
80
% Renewable
60
% Nuclear
% Fossil
60% reduction
in grid electricity {
40
20
0
Current
Onsite Renewable
Generation
Grid Electricity
Biofuel Diesel
Generator or Boiler
© 2009 Autodesk
50%
0%
What Is Net-Zero Energy?
Generation
= Zero
Consumption
This graphic shows net-zero on a daily basis.
Most current definitions of net-zero aim to achieve
Net-zero on an annual basis.
© 2009 Autodesk
Is Net-Zero Energy Carbon Neutral?
Maybe, maybe not.
 The grid energy consumed is typically CO2 emitting.
 The grid could also be primarily non- CO2 — think of a region that is
supplied primarily by hydro power.

Generation
Grid Electricity
© 2009 Autodesk
Consumption
= Zero
Can I buy my way into a carbon neutral building?
Options
1.
Onsite PV renewable is relatively expensive (~$8,000/kW of installed capacity)
for commercial buildings before rebates/incentives.
2.
Wind power for electricity is less expensive where available.
3.
Efficiency is almost always less expensive than installed renewable energy
systems. Design an efficient building and power the remainder with renewable
energy.
4.
Certificates
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Renewable Energy Certificates http://www.green-e.org/
•
Some uncertainty re: new offsets or “gaming” system.
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Can purchase wind, solar, hydro, or combination to fund new development.
•
Certificates cost approx. $0.01 – 0.02/kWh. At 10 kWh/sf/yr, adds approx.
$0.10 - $0.20/sf/yr to operating costs for an efficient building.
5.
Carbon trading: Success probably dependent on a “cap and trade” system.
© 2009 Autodesk
Carbon Trading
Chicago Climate Exchange
http://www.chicagoclimateexchange.com
1. Relatively new, low volume, immature market
2. Disagreement over whether or not the carbon
offsets are “real” and “new”
3. Volatile market … up 400%, then down 50% in
one year
© 2009 Autodesk
Process Change is Essential for
Effective Sustainable Design
Set Savings
Target
Optimize
Building Form
& Openings
Minimize
Internal Loads
Select HVAC
System
Onsite
Renewables
Commissioning
Purchase Green
Power &
Carbon Credits
© 2009 Autodesk
Iterate to Improve Design and Reduce Energy Use
© 2009 Autodesk
Residential vs. Commercial Buildings: A Brief Primer
Comparison of Energy End Use
30%
25%
Residential
Commercial
20%
15%
10%
Source: 2005 Buildings Energy Data Book, 2003 data
Other
Computers
Ventilation
Cooking
Electronics
Refrigeration
Water Heating
Space Cooling
0%
Lighting
5%
Space Heating
% of Total Building Energy Use
35%
The graph illustrated
compares the percentage of
energy end use for residential
buildings in the U.S.
compared to commercial
buildings in the U.S. As you
can see, in residential
buildings the largest
percentage of energy is
devoted to space heating—
nearly 35%; however in
commercial buildings space
heating comprises only about
16% of the total building
energy end-use.
This tells us that measures that reduce heating loads (passive solar design, increased
levels of insulation, windows with a lower u-value) play a larger role in designing carbonneutral houses than in designing carbon neutral commercial buildings.
© 2009 Autodesk
The Design Process Overview – Steps to Carbon Neutral Design
1.
Set Savings Target
2.
Optimize Site and Building Form and Openings
3.
Minimize Internal and External Loads
4.
Select HVAC System
5.
Onsite Renewables
6.
Commissioning
7.
Purchase Green Power and Carbon Credits
© 2009 Autodesk
Summary
In this lesson, you reviewed the concept of sustainability and the major sustainability
challenges that society faces today.
You considered why the design and construction of the built environment is so
important to achieving the goals of sustainability, and the history of how information
modeling has dramatically extended the effectiveness of architects, engineers, and
builders.
You considered how Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools and methodologies
that were originally used to increase the efficiency of the design process have proven
to be extraordinarily well-suited to the collaborative, interdisciplinary, and
scientifically complex challenge of sustainable design.
Finally, you considered how Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools and
methodologies can enable designers to accurately analyze, predict, simulate, certify,
and validate the performance of their designs with respect to laws, scientific
models,and market forces that define the goals of sustainable design.
© 2009 Autodesk
Autodesk, Green Building Studio and Revit are registered trademarks or trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. and/or its
subsidiaries and/or affiliates, in the USA and/or other countries. All other brand names, product names, or trademarks
belong to their respective holders. Autodesk reserves the right to alter product offerings and specifications at any time
without notice, and is not responsible for typographical or graphical errors that may appear in this document.
© 2009 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved
© 2009 Autodesk
.
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