Immunology Homework DUE 1/5/12 NAME ___________________________ 1- 13 Use words from the list below to fill in the blanks. Some words may be used more than once. Adaptive immunity Allergen Anaphylaxis Antibodies Antigens Autoimmune B- lymphocyte Cellular immunity Humoral immunity Hypersensitivity Immunization/Vaccination Immunodeficiency Immunogen Immunoglobins Immunosuppressive Innate immunity T- lymphocyte 1. _______________________________ develops as a result of antibody formation to an allergen or Immunogen. 2. Cellular immunity is mediated by ___________________________________ cells. 3. A(n) ________________________________ and a(n) ___________________________________ are substances that can initiate a hypersensitivity disorder. 4. A ___________________________________ reaction is most likely to occur after a second exposure to an antigen, where as _________________________________ is a severe reaction that occurs within seconds to minutes with a potentially fatal outcome. 5. The patient with a(n)______________________________________ disorder is at increased risk for infection and cancer. 6. Humoral and cellular immunity are examples of _______________________________________. 7. The inflammatory response is a major function of a(n) __________________________________ response to tissue injury or invading organism. 8. Plasmaphoresis is a treatment used for some types of __________________________________ disorders. 9. ____________________________________ cells produce antibodies in humoral immunity. 10. Passive and active immunity are types of ____________________________________________. 11. ___________________________________ are plasma protein antibodies released by Blymphocytes in response to a(n) ___________________________________________________. 12. Natural immunity is also known as _________________________________________________. 13. Acquired immunity develops as a result of prior exposure to an antigen through either ____________________________________ or contracting a disease. 14. Describe how cell-mediated immunity is activated? 15. Describe how humoral immunity is activated? 16. How do passive and active immunity differ? 17. List the body system and the signs and symptoms that would indicate that your patient may be having an anaphylactic response. In the last row, outline the treatment of a systemic anaphylactic reaction. System Signs & Symptoms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Treatment 18. The suppressed humoral immune response in older adults is associated with a. Degeneration of the spleen b. Reduction of the production of white blood cells c. Reduction in effectiveness of white blood cells d. Decreased immunoglobulin levels 19. Identify how the following fluid will move when administered to a patient intravenously. a. Hypertonic solution: b. Hypotonic solution: 20. What are common signs and symptoms associated with hypocalcemia, and what the nursing interventions would be for the imbalance? a. b. c. 21. For the following laboratory results, identify the electrolyte imbalance. a. Serum sodium level 127 mEq/L: b. Serum potassium 5.6 mEq/L: c. Serum calcium 3.8 mEq/L: d. Serum magnesium 2.7 mEq/L: 22. For each of the lab values and electrolyte levels identified above, list associated signs and symptoms. a. b. c. d. 23. Identify two considerations for the older adult patient regarding fluid and electrolyte balance. a. b. 24. While caring for a known HIV positive patient in the emergency room, you notice the phlebotomist preparing to draw the blood. How do you respond? a. Do nothing, as all patients should be treated with standard precautions b. Ask the technician if you can see him before he completes the procedure. c. Flag the chart to let all health care providers know the patient’s status d. Discretely hand a second pair of gloves to the technician as a signal. 25. The major extracellular electrolyte is ________________________________ 26. The major intracellular electrolyte is _________________________________ 27. Complete the table below and use as a study reference. Blood Component a. Common Name b. Normal Value c. ERYTHROCYTES A. B. C. LEUKOCYTES A. B. C. NEUTROPHILS A. B. C. EOSINOPHILS A. B. C. BASOPHILS A. B. C. MONOCYTES A. B. C. THROMBOCYTES A. B. C. Function Questions 29- 33 Use the Core Concepts of Pharmacology Book and NSAID supplemental reading provided as your reference. 28. Identify 5 of the primary chemical mediators of Inflammation. 29. Identify 3 side effects associated with prolonged use of systemic glucocorticoids such as prednisone. a. b. c. 30. Describe the mechanism of action of antihistamines. 31. Describe the major differences between histamine 1 (H1) an histamine 2 (H2) receptor sites in the body. 32. Differentiate between 1st & 2nd generation H1 antihistamines by completing the table below. Prototype Drug Indication for use Side Effect Profile (include generic name) 1st Generation H1 antihistamine 2nd Generation H1 antihistamine 33. Identify 4 priority potential side effects of NSAID therapy and the patient instructions that correlate with the potential side effect. An example is provided. Potential NSAID Side Effect Patient Instructions e.g. Hepatic Toxicity Instruct pt to report bleeding of gums, blood in stool or urine, abd pain, anorexia (loss of appetite), nausea, vomiting, jaundice or pale stools 1. 2. 3. 4.