GOVT 2301 Fall 2002 Study Guide – Exam #1 ESSAY QUESTIONS. Answer the following questions in a thorough essay (separate essay for each question). Organize your essay(s) around a thesis statement. Include an introduction, separate paragraphs developing your supporting arguments, and a conclusion. A complete answer is one that addresses all parts of the question. Write complete sentences and pay attention to spelling, grammar, and word choice. Do NOT assume that “the instructor will know what you mean.” 1. Discuss the utility of the systems model of policy-making. Diagram the model, identifying and explaining each of its component parts. 2. Discuss the five stages of the policy-making process (the production line model). Outline the activities and actors that may be involved in each stage. 3. Using a straight-line continuum, indicate and discuss the role of government in the American economy? Why is the American economy considered a “mixed economy”? Discuss two broad types of economic functions performed by government, providing examples of each. Specifically, discuss government’s role in promoting the ideal of competition in the economy, in redistributing wealth, in providing public goods and services, in countering externalities, and in stabilizing the economy. Illustrate your points with examples. 4. Explain when government should pursue an expansionary fiscal policy and when it should pursue a contractionary fiscal policy according to Keynesian economic theory. Discuss what each of these entail. Outline the timing and political problems encountered when applying fiscal policy in the “real world.” SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS. Answer the following questions in a paragraph (a separate paragraph for each question). Do NOT answer specific parts as separate items. Integrate your responses into a well-organized, well-constructed paragraph. A complete answer is one that addresses all parts of the question. Write complete sentences and pay attention to spelling, grammar, and word choice. Do NOT assume that “the instructor will know what you mean.” 1. Discuss Laswell’s, Easton’s, and Feagin’s definition of politics. 2. Define government. Explain why, in American society, government is perceived as the legitimate institutional arrangement to impose binding decisions on people. 3. Outline and discuss public policy’s five defining characteristics. 4. Identify and describe four types of economic systems found in the “real” world. 5. Outline and explain the basic tenets of capitalist economic theory. What are the implications of these assumptions? 6. Distinguish between pure public goods and pure private goods. Provide examples of each. Explain the free-rider problem. 7. Distinguish between positive and negative externalities. Provide examples of each. What actions might government take to counter each? 8. Explain the criticism of expansionary fiscal policy that arises from the Ricardian Equivalence Theorem. 9. What do economists mean by the “crowding-out effect”? What are its implications for an expansionary fiscal policy? 10. How can monetary policy be used to stabilize the macroeconomy? What arguments do critics make with regards to the effectiveness of monetary policy? IDENTIFICATION ITEMS. Define and identify the importance of the following items in a sentence or two for each. These items can generally be answered in two or three sentences. Students should go beyond simple definitions of the terms or concepts to say why each is important. It is possible that two terms may be paired in identification items. Your answer should be written to demonstrate your familiarity with and understanding of both terms or concepts in each pair. In this case, you should explain why the two are juxtaposed. Here is an example: [example] Article I, sec. 8:18 v 10th Amendment – Article I, sec 8:18 implies that the national government has powers beyond those that are expressly delegated in the Constitution while the 10th Amendment reserves for the states any powers not delegated by the Constitution to the national government. These provisions reflect the competing political philosophies of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists respectively; consequently, the question of the balance of constitutional powers between the two levels of government must be resolved by judicial interpretation. politics government legitimacy authoritative government authoritarian government policy outputs policy statements implementing actions target group environments inputs input structures conversion structures feedback public agenda official agenda positive externality Keynesian economics aggregate demand productive capacity fiscal policy monetary policy ”crowding-out effect” policy outcomes pure capitalism laissez-faire capitalism centrally-planned economy market capitalism market socialism command socialism command capitalism mixed economy asymmetrical information monopoly ”natural” monopoly transfer programs price ceiling price floor progressive tax regressive tax free-rider problem public good private good negative externality Ricardian Equivalence Theorem MISCELLANEOUS BITS OF INFORMATION TO BEAR IN MIND: Please bring a “clean” blue book to class with you on test day. Place the blue book on the table at the front of the classroom. The instructor will then distribute blue books to the class. You will have the entire class period to complete the exam. You should use as much of that time as necessary to answer the exam questions thoroughly. Your primary objective probably should not be to get out of class early. Please do NOT write answers to test items in outline form or use incomplete sentences. We are administering written-format exams this semester in lieu of an outside writing assignment (i.e., research paper) to fulfill the writing requirement for the course. Your ability to write the English language effects your ability to communicate your understanding of the concepts and themes of this course. Write legibly!! PRINT if necessary! Write LARGE enough for the instructor to read your answers. The instructor will not grade illegible answers. Do NOT hesitate to ask questions of the instructor concerning any of the information you do not understand. The best time to ask questions is before rather than after the exam. Of course, during the exam is completely out of the question! It is the view of the instructor that the best way to prepare for the exam is to spread your studying out over the course of several study sessions. “Cramming” or setting aside a single block of time to study, regardless of the length, usually does not promote genuine understanding of concepts, themes, or major emphases. This study guide has been prepared to include the major themes, concepts, and emphases covered in class, as well as specific information from class lectures. Take full advantage of this study guide. I advise you to write out answers to ALL of the questions on this study guide, in as complete fashion as you would if you were writing answers for the actual exam. Then, study the answers you have written as opposed to studying from your notes. Of course, the gamblers among you will attempt to determine which questions they believe are likely to appear on the actual exam and only prepare answers to those questions. The questions that you will see on the exam are included in the study guide before you. It is up to you to utilize it in the way that maximizes your benefit. In short, the exam will essentially be a test of your preparation! Therefore, if you choose not to prepare yourself and do poorly, you have no one to blame except yourself; nothing to fear but fear itself; make your bed, now lie in it; dance with them that brung ‘ya; to get along, go along; the squeaky wheel gets the grease; ‘tis better to give than to receive; spare the rod, spoil the child; ask not what your country can do for you, rather ask what you can do for your country; the early bird gets the worm; a rolling stone gathers no moss; it’s better to be hacked-off than hack-sawed. Use the space on the back of this page to add your own hackneyed expressions and pointless clichés.