civil rights civil rights, rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than “political rights,” which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike “natural rights,” civil rights have a legal as well as a philosophical basis. In the United States civil rights are usually thought of in terms of the specific rights guaranteed in the Constitution: freedom of religion, of speech, and of the press, and the rights to due process of law and to equal protection under the law. By the President of the United States of America: A PROCLAMATION Whereas on the 22nd day of September, A.D. 1862, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the following, to wit: "That on the 1st day of January, A.D. 1863, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. Amendment XIII Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 1. December 18, 1865 Amendment XV The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Section 1. (Women did not get the right to vote until amendment XIX in 1920) Civil Rights Act of 1875: A law passed on March 1, 1875, that guaranteed equal rights for blacks in public places and made illegal the exclusion of African Americans from jury duty. However, the Supreme Court declared this act invalid in 1883 because it protected social rather than political rights. The Court also argued that the 14th Amendment prohibited the states from depriving individuals of their civil rights but did not protect the abuse of individuals' civil rights by other individuals. This ruling ended Federal protection of African Americans against discrimination by private persons. More than 350,000 African Americans served in segregated units during World War I. 171 were awarded the French Legion of Honor. “Red Summer” Cross burning was not banned until April, 2003 According to Tuskegee Institute figures, 3,437 African Americans and 1,293 whites were lynched between 1882 and 1951. W.E.B. DuBois 1868-1963 Scholar, Educator, Founder of NAACP He was the uncompromising voice for black equality in his day and the first scholar of black sociology, believing that education could end racism. Scottsboro Boys escorted by National Guard Scottsboro Boys protected by National Guard Jackie Robinson, 1947 The Civil Rights Era One hundred years after the Civil War, blacks and their white allies still pursued the battle for civil rights in every area of American life. The Brown decision of 1954, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act in 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 are major milestones in the effort end discrimination. They regulate equal access to public accommodations, equal justice before the law, and equal employment, education and housing opportunities. These changes were the result of a hardfought struggle. The African American struggle for civil rights also inspired other liberation and rights movements, including those of Native Americans, Latinos, and women as well as liberation struggles in other counties. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, May 17, 1954 August 28, 1955 On December 1, 1955, Mrs. Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a segregated Montgomery, Alabama bus and was arrested. On December 5, 1955, the Montgomery Improvement Association was organized, and the famous boycott began which lasted 381 days. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., at twenty-seven years old, became the leading thrust for civil rights in America. Rosa Parks in Montgomery, Ala., on Dec. 21, 1956, after a Supreme Court ruling banning segregation on city public transit vehicles took effect September, 1956: For the first time in America, over 1,000 school districts opened their doors to African-American children on an integrated basis. No desegregation took place in the districts of North Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana in the year of 1956. On January 12, 1957, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLS) was formally organized, and later, on February 14, 1957, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was elected president. The Little Rock Nine Desegregation of Central High School, September, 1957 Alabama, 1958 welcomes you to our town. The 1960 Klan Alabama: welcomes KKK visitors to Capitol City, Alabama 1960 Greensboro, North Carolina, 1960 Woolworth Lunch Counter Sit-in Alabama, 1960 By 1960, four states in the United States had not desegregated their public schools since the U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1954 had been handed down. They were South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. "At our first stop in Virginia . . . I [was] confronted with what the Southern white has called `separate but equal.' A modern rest station with gleaming counters and picture windows was labeled `White,' and a small wooden shack beside it was tagged `Colored.'" -- Freedom Rider William Mahoney [26 Freedom Riders: May 1961 Anniston, Alabama October 1, 1962, James Meredith enrolls at University of Mississippi April 16, 1963, Dr. King was jailed and, while there, produced his thoughts about justice and civil rights in his famous Letter from a Birmingham Jail. On Alabama, 1963 June 11, 1963, Governor George Wallace stages his “stand in the schoolhouse door,” an unsuccessful attempt to block integration of the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa. Medgar Evers 1925-1963 “It may sound funny, but I love the South. I don’t choose to live anywhere else. There’s land here, where a man can raise cattle, and I’m going to do it some day. There are lakes where a man can sink a hook and fight the bass. There is room here for my children to play and grow, and become good citizens—if the white man will let them....” —Medgar Evers, “Why I Live in Mississippi” August 28, 1963, March on Washington March on Washington, August 28, 1963 Time magazine honored Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as the Man of the Year, along with a feature story, January 3, 1964. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. received the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 1964. September 15, 1963, 16th Street Baptist Church bombed by KKK Mississippi Freedom Summer Project 1964 June 21, 1964 - Neshoba County murders - Three civil rights workers are murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi. After several weeks of searching for the missing civil rights workers, authorities found the bodies of James Chaney, an African-American Mississippi native, Michael Schwerner, and Andrew Goodman in an earthen dam. The Congress of the United States passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which included provisions for the elimination of discrimination in education, employment, and in public accommodations. President Lyndon Johnson signed the bill with notables present, including Dr. King, on July 2, 1964. Selma, Alabama, March 7, 1965: “Bloody Sunday” Alabama, 1965 Alabama, 1965 President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the 1965 Voting Rights Act into law on August 6, 1965. •Suspended literacy tests •Authorized federal officials to supervise elections in some Southern districts African American voter registration jumped from 35% to 65% by 1970. One of the bloodiest and most destructive race riots ever in America happened in Watts, Los Angeles, California and lasted for five days, August 11-15, 1965. Thirty-five people were killed, nine hundred injured, and property losses of $225 million. Federal troops were called in to stop the violence. The summer of 1967 was called the "Hot Summer," the worst racial uprisings in American history with over forty riots: the cities of Newark, NJ; Detroit, MI; New York, NY; Washington, DC; Baltimore, MD; Chicago, IL; Atlanta, GA; and Buffalo, NY had the worst. ThePresident Civil Rights Bill signing of 1968the wasCivil signed intoAct law.ofIt 1968, included the Johnson Rights Fair Housing Act known that prohibited "discrimination Title VIII, also as the Fair Housing Act.on the basis of race in the renting and sale of houses and apartments." June 1966 -- Black Power Movement "officially" begins as a movement distinctly different from the Civil Rights Movement June 1966 – Led by Malcolm X, Robert Williams, Stokley Carmichael, and the Black Panther Party, the Black Power Movement encouraged pride in African-American culture and racial heritage. In an approach different from the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Power Movement advocated improvement in African-American communities and militant protest, as opposed to integration and non-violent protest. 1925-1965 Activist, Spiritual Leader Malcolm X became a leading figure in the Nation of Islam because of his astute criticism of white America and the alternative vision he proposed. He broke with the NOI in 1964. STOKELY CARMICHAEL A leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and later the Black Panthers, Carmichael coined the phrase "Black Power" and “Black is Beautiful” October 15, 1966 - The Black Panther Party, an outgrowth of the Black Power Movement, is formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. The official name of the party was the Black Panther Party for SelfDefense. It advocated militant protest and active selfdefense by African Americans, initially recruiting members from African-American communities in Oakland and San Francisco, California. Bobby Seale and the Black Panthers October, 1966 “Any necessary means…” Huey Newton 1942-1989 Founder of Black Panthers Huey Newton's Black Panther Party initiated such social programs as the Free Breakfast Program, a free medical clinic and free legal aid, as well as defense against police brutality. 1966 – Black Power advocates take over a disintegrating civil rights movement and begin to emphasize separatism and community control as opposed to integration and nonviolence. From the Paul B. Johnson Collection, McCain Library and Archives, University of Southern Mississippi. H. Rap Brown (1943- ) became the chairperson of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on May 12, 1967. He changed the name of SNCC to the Student National Coordinating Committee. Brown's runins with the law landed him in jail where he converted to the Islamic faith. His new name became Jamil Abdullah AlAmin. April 4, 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated on the balcony of his motel room in Memphis, Tennessee.