CDE Summer Symposium 2011 Family-School Partnering: From Add-On to Core Family-School Partnering Research to Practice Executive Summary Time During the school years, students spend 70% of their waking hours outside of school (Clarke, 1990). Student Achievement Students with partnering parents, no matter what their income or background, are more likely to earn higher grades and test scores, attend regularly, graduate, and pursue postsecondary education (Henderson & Mapp, 2002). Generalization of school program learning occurs more readily when families are involved (Sheridan, 1997). Specific home and “out-of-school, coordinated” actions which improve student achievement are as follows: (1) frequent family discussions about school; (2) families encouraging their children regarding schoolwork; (3) providing resources to help with schoolwork; (4) supervision of homework, TV viewing, after-school activities (Marzano, 2003). Programs and interventions that explicitly engage families in supporting their children’s learning at home are linked to higher student achievement, as are those related to engaging families in specific skill development (Henderson & Mapp, 2002). Student attributes directly related to achievement, such as effective learning behaviors and beliefs about education, are directly influenced by familyschool partnering in student’s learning (Hoover-Dempsey, Whitaker & Ice, 2010). Every Family, Every Student All students benefit from family-school partnering, including those who are at the secondary level and those who experience differences in culture, learning, and economic status (Jeynes, 2005, 2007). All parents, regardless of educational level, income status, or ethnic background, want their children to succeed in school and desire information as to their role (Christenson, 1995). School practices (such as frequent communication and having meaningful roles for parents) are a stronger predictor of parent involvement than parent’s educational level, income status, or ethnic background (Epstein, 1991). Challenges and Solutions Educator and family challenges and solutions in partnering together for student success are similar; they include needing explicit role expectations for sharing responsibility, self-confidence, skills, workable logistics, authentic invitations, and mutually respectful relationships (Hoover-Dempsey, Whitaker & Ice, 2010). CDE Summer Symposium 2011 Family-School Partnering: From Add-On to Core Applying the Research to Improve Student Outcomes Universal Tier Encourage every family to systematically and frequently discuss school, supervise homework and after-school time, encourage high expectations, and reinforce student effort Describe administrator, teacher, student, and family partnering roles Request home learning coordination from every family and educator, stated clearly from leadership; provide information on research and standards; explain and use achievement data; invite partnering Foster ongoing two-way communication between families and teachers Offer families choices in what can work best within their routines and knowledge at home, tying to culture and language preferences Ask families what they need to support learning at home, follow up frequently, and offer liaison support for questions and support of efforts Link home and school efforts for students by including them in planning, communicating, and reinforcing learning Define homework roles and responsibilities for families and educators, always focusing on student success and ongoing teaming; problem-solve whenever needed Targeted and Intensive Tiers Design home-school interventions that focus on specific, measurable outcomes based on joint data Include regular, mutual monitoring of student progress, with shared discussion and planning, using data Follow up regularly to problem-solve, encourage, and continue familyschool education; include community resources as needed References Christenson, S. L. (1995). Families and schools: What is the role of the school psychologist? School Psychology Quarterly, 10, 118-132. Clark, R.M. (1990). Why disadvantaged students succeed: What happens outside school is critical. Public Welfare (17-23). Epstein, J.L. (1991). Paths to partnership: What can we learn from federal, state, district, and school initiatives. Phi Delta Kappa, 72 (5). Henderson, A. & Mapp, K. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family & Community Connections with Schools. Hoover-Dempsey, K.V., Whitaker, M.C., & Ice, C.L. (2010). Motivation and commitment to family-school partnerships. In S.L. Christenson & A.L. Reschly (Eds.), Handbook of school-family partnerships (pp. 30-60). New York: Routledge. Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40, 237-269. Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42, 82-110. Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. CDE Summer Symposium 2011 Family-School Partnering: From Add-On to Core Sheridan, S.M. (1997). Conceptual and empirical bases of conjoint behavioral consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 119-133.