Vegetables Chapter 14

Did you know?
• Carrots are one of the
world’s most popular
vegetables. Until about the
1600s, carrots were purple.
Did you know?
Potatoes originated in South America
and were taken to England and
Europe by explorer Francis Drake in
the 1500s. At first people in England
and Europe didn't eat the potatoes,
they just grew the plant because they
thought it looked pretty!
Did you know?
• Cauliflower comes from
China, where they are
about the size of a cricket
After studying this chapter, you will be able to
• Explain how to properly select and
store vegetables.
• Describe food science principles of
cooking vegetables.
• Identify methods for cooking
• Prepare vegetables, preserving their
colors, textures, flavors, and nutrients.
Key Terms
New potatoes
• Most vegetables are fairly low in
cost and calories. Vegetables are
versatile enough for you to use
in any menu.
• You can serve them raw or
cooked to add flavor, color,
texture, and nutrients to meals.
They are also good choices for
in between meal snacks.
Choosing Fresh Vegetables
• The cost of fresh vegetables depends
a great deal on the time of year.
• Vegetables cost less when purchased
during their peak growing season.
During other seasons, costs vary
due to storage, handling, and
shipping charges.
Vegetables and MyPlate
• MyPlate suggests teens eat 2 ½ to 4
cups per day from the vegetable
group. The amount you need
depends on your sex and activity
level. Cut vegetables and vegetable
juice count cup for cup. Two cups
of leafy vegetables count as 1 cup
from this group.
Vegetables and MyPlate
• MyPlate sorts vegetables into five
subgroups based on the nutrients
they provide.
1. Dark green vegetables-broccoli, lettuce,
2. Red and orange vegetables-carrots, pumpkin,
squash, sweet potatoes.
3. Dry beans and peas-lentils, pinto, black
beans, tofu
4. Starchy Vegetables-corn, green peas, potatoes
5. Other Vegetables-onions, celery, cucumbers,
green beans
Vegetable Classifications
• Vegetables are often grouped
according to the part of the plant
from which they come.
• Garlic and onion are bulbs.
Artichokes, broccoli, and
cauliflower are flowers.
• Two other ways to classify
vegetables are according to flavor
or color.
Vegetable Classifications
Vegetable Classification
• Garlic
• Onion
Vegetable Classifications
• Color is another factor used to
classify vegetables. Vegetables can be
green, orange, white, or red.
• A vegetable’s color depends on the
pigments it contains.
– Green vegetables-(broccoli, spinach)
contain chlorophyll.
– Orange vegetables-(carrots, sweet
potatoes) contain carotene.
– White vegetables-(cauliflower and
parsnips) contain flavones.
– Red vegetables-(beets and red cabbage)
contain anthocyanin.
Nutritional Value of Vegetables
• Deep yellow and orange vegetables
are excellent sources of carotene.
• This is a substance the body can
convert into Vitamin A.
• Tomatoes, broccoli, Brussels
sprouts, cabbage, and cauliflower
are good sources of vitamin C.
• Leafy green vegetables are good
sources of folate.
Nutritional Value of Vegetables
• All vegetables are good sources of
• However, fresh vegetables are the
best form of vegetables for fiber
Nutritional Value of Vegetables
• Seeds, roots, and tubers are
starchy vegetables.
• They have more carbohydrates
and calories per serving than other
types of vegetables.
Quick Check
• Which vegetables are the best source
of fiber?
• All vegetables are a good source of fiber,
but fresh vegetables are the best.
• What are the benefits of a diet rich in
• A healthy digestive system. Fiber keeps
your body processing food at a constant
Selecting Fresh Vegetables
• The effects of temperature and
handling may reduce the quality of
vegetables during shipping.
Selecting Fresh Vegetables
• When shopping for fresh vegetables,
follow these guidelines…
– Look for good color, firmness, and absence of
bruises and decay.
– Avoid wilted and misshapen vegetables
– Handle carefully, to prevent bruising
– Choose vegetables that are medium in size. Very
small vegetables can be immature and lack
flavor, Very large can be overmature and tough.
– Buy only what you will use in a short amount of
– In season vegetables, are high in quality and low
in price
Storing Fresh Vegetables
• You should use all vegetables as
soon as possible for best flavor,
appearance, and nutritive value.
• Most vegetables will keep in the
refrigerator for a few days.
• Place most vegetables
in the crisper or in
plastic bags or containers.
Storing Fresh Vegetables
• Store sweet corn IN the husk.
• Allow tomatoes to fully ripen at
room temperature before storing in
the refrigerator uncovered.
• Wrap leafy green vegetables in a
damp towel and place in a
perforated plastic bag before
1. Cucumber
2. Carrot
3. Zucchini
4. Pumpkin
5. Fried
6. Apple
Carrot Spice
Choosing Canned, Frozen, and
Dried Vegetables
• Canned vegetables can be whole,
sliced, or in pieces. Most are
canned in water.
• Canned vegetables usually cost less
than either frozen or fresh
• Cost per serving depends on brand,
can size, quality, and packing
Canned Vegetables
• Choose cans that are free from
dents, bulges, and leaks.
• Choose the quality that meets your
needs and intended use.
• Store in a cool, dry place.
• Refrigerate after opening.
Frozen Vegetables
• Frozen vegetables retain the
appearance, and flavor of fresh
vegetables better than canned and
dried vegetables.
• Freezing may alter their texture
• They are available in paper
cartons, and plastic bags.
Frozen Vegetables
• Some vegetables are frozen in
combinations or in sauces.
– Peas and Carrots
– Broccoli and Cheese
Buying and Storing Frozen
• Frozen vegetables usually cost less
than fresh.
• During winter months, frozen
green beans are less expensive than
fresh green beans.
• Choose packages that are clean and
solidly frozen.
• Store packages in the coldest part
of the freezer.
Dried Vegetables
• A few vegetables are dried.
• The dried legumes - peas, beans,
and lentils- are the most commonly
purchased dried vegetables.
• Legumes are high in protein. They
are also excellent sources of fiber.
• They are used as meat substitutes
in many dishes.
Dried Vegetables
• Many people use dried navy beans,
lima beans, split peas, and lentils
in soups.
• They use pinto beans and red
beans in chili and many Mexican
Buying and Storing Dried
• Choose legumes that are uniform
in size, free of visible defects, and
brightly colored.
• Store them in covered containers
in a cool dry place.
Quick Check
• Cost per serving usually
depends on?
• Brand, size, and quality.
•When choosing vegetables you
should look for…?
• Look for good color,
firmness, and absence of
bruises and decay.
Preparing Vegetables
• You can eat many vegetables raw.
• Raw vegetables are attractive to serve
because they are colorful, and their
crunchiness adds texture to meals and
•The edible part of a vegetable grows
in or near the soil.
• Soil can carry harmful bacteria, so it
is important to wash all vegetables.
Preparing Vegetables
•Proper Sanitation
is important when
•Always rinse your
vegetables before
cutting into them.
• Some vegetables
can be sanitized in a
diluted bleach
Preparing Vegetables
•Wash vegetables
carefully, but do not
let them soak.
• Water soluble
nutrients can be lost if
you leave vegetables to
•Gently dry vegetables
with a clean cloth to
avoid growth of
Preparing Vegetables
• Trim any bruised areas, wilted
leaves, and thick stems.
•When peeling vegetables, use a
vegetable scraper or floating edge
•This will help protect as many
nutrients as possible.
Preparing Vegetables
• Raw vegetables taste best when
served cold.
•You can place a relish tray on a bed
of ice or arrange vegetables in a bowl
lined with ice.
•Store washed and thoroughly
drained vegetables in covered
containers in the refrigerator.
Quick Check
• What kind of vegetables need to be
washed before being eaten?
•All vegetables need to be washed,
whether or not they are eaten raw,
or cooked.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• When vegetables are cooked,
several changes take place.
• The cellulose (fiber) in vegetables
softens to make chewing easier.
• Starch absorbs water, swells, and
becomes easier to digest.
•Flavors and colors undergo changes,
and some of the nutrients may be
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• Properly cooked vegetables are
colorful and flavorful.
• They also have a crisp-tender
texture, tender yet slightly firm.
• They can be pierced with a fork but
not too easily.
vegetables may suffer
undesirable changes in
color, texture, and
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• Cooking vegetables too long causes
several undesirable changes to take
place. Heat sensitive nutrients such
as thiamin, are lost.
• In most cases you should cook
vegetables for a short time in a small
amount of water.
• Serve them when they are crisptender.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• Vegetables can have mild, strong, or
very strong flavors.
•Cooking can affect these flavors.
•Mildly flavored vegetables include
green vegetables, such as peas, green
beans, and spinach.
•Yellow vegetables, such as corn; red
vegetables, such as parsnips, are also
mild flavors.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• Cook most mildly flavored
vegetables for a short time in a small
amount of water.
• Strongly flavored vegetables such as
cabbage, broccoli, and brussels
sprouts, are exceptions to the general
• COVER these vegetables with
water. Cook them uncovered for a
short time.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
•Very strongly flavored vegetables,
such as onions and leeks, should also
be covered with water.
•Cook them in an uncovered pan for
a longer time.
•As they cook, these vegetables will
release strong flavor substances and
develop a milder flavor.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• Cooking can affect the color of
vegetables. For this reason, cooking
times and methods may need
adjustment to suit the vegetables you
are cooking.
• Green vegetables contain the green
pigment chlorophyll.
•Overcooked green vegetables lose
their bright green color and look
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• To keep vegetables green, cook
them in a small amount of water.
• Use a short cooking time and keep
the pan lid off for the first few
minutes of cooking.
• Yellow vegetables contain carotene.
• Carotene gives vegetables a yellow
or orange color.
• Heat does not destroy it.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• Heat does not destroy carotene in
orange vegetables.
•If an orange vegetable is overcooked,
the cell structure will break down.
This will release the carotene into
the cooking liquid.
•Most orange vegetables should be
cooked in a small amount of water
with the pan covered.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• White vegetables contain pigments
called flavones.
• Flavones are soluble in water. If you
overcook white vegetables, they turn
yellow or dark gray.
• Take care when
cooking to avoid
these undesirable
color changes.
Principles of Cooking Vegetables
• Red vegetables contain a pigment
called anthocyanin.
• An alkali present in some water can
affect this pigment.
• If the cooking water is alkaline, the
red pigment will turn purple.
• A small amount of vinegar or
lemon juice (an acid) added to the
water will neutralize the alkali.
Quick Check
• What happens when you overcook
green vegetables?
• They can turn gray and mushy.
Also, if you add an acid, (lemon
juice), it will break down the
chlorophyll and turn the
vegetables gray.
Methods of Cooking Vegetables
• You can cook vegetables by boiling,
steaming, pressure-cooking, roasting,
frying, stir-frying, broiling, grilling,
and microwaving.
• Regardless of the cooking method,
vegetables cooked in their skins
retain more nutrients.
Cooking Vegetables in Water
• Use a pan with a tight fitting lid
when cooking vegetables in water.
•Add salt to a small amount of water
and bring the water to a boil.
•Add the vegetables, cover, and
quickly bring to a boil again.
• Reduce heat and cook the
vegetables at a simmering
temperature until they are crisptender.
Cooking Vegetables in Water
• After vegetables have cooked, do
not throw away the cooking liquid. It
contains many valuable nutrients.
• You can serve a small amount of
the cooking liquid with the
vegetables in a separate dish.
• If you do not want to use the liquid
right away, freeze it in small
• Ice cube trays work well.
Steaming Vegetables
• You can steam young tender
vegetables that cook quickly.
• To steam vegetables, place them in
a steaming basket over simmering
water. Tightly cover the pan and
steam the vegetables until they are
• You can successfully steam
shredded cabbage, broccoli, diced
root vegetables, celery, sweet corn,
and French style green beans.
• To pressure-cook vegetables, follow
the directions that accompany the
pressure cooker.
•The pressure in a pressure cooker
produces high temperatures, so foods
cook quickly.
•Time vegetables carefully to prevent
Roasting Vegetables
• You can roast vegetables peeled or
in their skins. Wrap peeled
vegetables in foil or place them in a
covered casserole with a small
amount of liquid.
• Potatoes, tomatoes, and onions are
popular baking vegetables.
• Roasting takes longer than any
other method.
Frying Vegetables
• You can dip vegetables in batter
and deep-fry them. You can sauté
them in a small amount of fat.
• Stir-frying works well with
vegetables that have a high moisture
• Place vegetables in a heavy pan or
Wok. Use a small amount of oil.
Place on medium high heat. Stir the
vegetables constantly until just
Broiling Vegetables
• Tomato halves and eggplant slices
are often broiled. To broil vegetables,
brush the cut surface with oil or
melted fat. Place the vegetable under
the broiling unit and broil until
• Vegetables will cook QUICKLY.
Grilling Vegetables
• Grilling times vary for vegetables.
Dense vegetables, like potatoes, take
longer to grill than less dense
vegetables, like mushrooms and
•Whole vegetables also take longer to
grill than cut pieces.
•Placing vegetables in a grill basket
makes it easy to turn them during
grilling for more even cooking.
Microwaving Vegetables
• Vegetables cooked in a microwave oven retain
their shapes, colors, flavors, and nutrients. This is
due to the short cooking time and the little or no
use of cooking liquid.
• Use high power to cook vegetables in the
• Allow standing time for vegetables to finish
•Stir vegetable dishes during the cooking period
to redistribute heat.
•Vegetables with tight skins can explode when
cooked in the microwave. To prevent this, pierce
their skins in several places before microwaving.
• Although potatoes are a vegetable,
they are treated differently than other
• Potatoes are classified on the basis of
appearance and use. Common varieties
are long or round with white skins or
round with red skins.
• They can be all-purpose, baking, or
new potatoes. (New potatoes are not a
variety, they are potatoes sent to market
immediately after being harvested.
• New potatoes and round red
varieties are best for boiling, ovenbrowning, frying, and making potato
• They hold their shape when
•Baking or russet potatoes, are best
for baking or mashing. Their mealy
texture allows them to break apart
Preparing Potatoes
• Four popular potato preparations
•Boiled potatoes
need to first be
washed, then
peeled, and halved.
• Cover the potatoes
with lightly salted
water and simmer
until tender.
Preparing Potatoes
• Prepare potatoes for mashing the
same as boiled potatoes. Then add
butter, milk, and salt and beat the
potatoes with an electric mixer or
mash them by hand.
Preparing Potatoes
• To prepare baked potatoes, scrub
potatoes under cool running water.
Pierce the potatoes in several places
with a fork. This prevents steam from
building up inside the skin, which
could cause the potato to EXPLODE.
• Bake potatoes in a 400* oven until
tender, about 40 to 60 minutes.
•A potato can also be baked in a
microwave oven in about five minutes.
Preparing Canned, Frozen, and
Dried Vegetables
• Canned vegetables have already been
cooked. Many vegetables suffer
changes in color and texture during
•Therefore, they will look and taste
better if you heat them no more than
what is necessary before serving.
Preparing Canned, Frozen, and
Dried Vegetables
•Frozen vegetables have already been
blanched. (preheated in boiling water
or steam for a short period of time.)
•To prepare frozen vegetables
according to the package instructions.
Preparing Canned, Frozen, and
Dried Vegetables
• Before cooking, rinse and sort dried
legumes. Remove any debris that may
have been packaged with the
• Dried beans must be soaked before
cooking so they will absorb water and
cook more evenly.
•To soak beans, place them in a large
pot with plenty of water.
• Boil water for 2-3 minutes.
Preparing Canned, Frozen, and
Dried Vegetables
• Cover the pot and remove it from
the heat. Allow beans to soak for at
least one hour.
• You should discard the soaking
water, and use fresh water for
• This will help reduce the gas-causing
properties of beans.
•Dried lentils and peas
Need no soaking.
Serving Vegetables
• You can serve vegetables in many
creative and delicious ways. Some
people prefer their vegetables served
simply, seasoned with herbs or
sprinkling of salt.
• Others enjoy vegetables topped with
a few toasted nuts or a bit of shredded
• How vegetables are served, is a
matter of preference.
Vegetable FUN!
• What do you call a stolen yam?
• A hot potato.
•Why do potatoes make good
• Because they keep their eyes