Matter can cycle through the biosphere matter, they transform it.

Matter can cycle through the biosphere
because biological systems do not use up
matter, they transform it.
Matter is Recycled within and between the
Matter is assembles into living tissues or
passed out of the body as waste.
Just think, with every breath you take, you
inhale hundreds of oxygen atoms that
might have been inhaled by dinosaurs
millions of years ago!!
Plants and animals need water to live
Natural processes constantly recycle water
throughout the environment
◦ Animals breathe out water vapor,
return water to the environment
through urination
◦ Plants pull water from the ground
and lose water from their leaves
through transpiration
21 The diagram
shows physical
changes that
occur in the water
cycle. Which of
these shows
C S Precipitation
D T Run Off of
ground water
All life on earth is based on carbon. Carbon is
a key ingredient of living tissue.
Begins during photosynthesis in which CO2
gas is converted to carbon molecules
Carbon molecules are then used for energy
and growth
As heterotrophs eat plants, they also gain this
energy from carbon
When the carbon is used, CO2 is released and
returned to the atmosphere
Glucose C6H12O6 is
produced by plants,
eaten by animals.
• Animals and plants
exhale CO2 which is
taken in by plants
to make glucose
Cellular Respiration
Lightening and bacteria in the ground “fix”
Nitrogen into a form usable by plants.
It is absorbed by plants, through their roots
as nitrates, so they can be used to build
amino acids essential for building proteins,
enzymes and the nitrogen bases of DNA.
All organisms require phosphorus for
Phosphorus cycles in two ways
◦ In the short term cycle, phosphorus is found in
plants, animals eat plants, they die, and the
phosphorus returns to the soil
◦ In the long term cycle, phosphorus is washed
into the sea and is incorporated into rock
 The
paths of water, carbon,
nitrogen, and phosphorous pass
from the nonliving environment
to living organisms and then
back to the nonliving
Ground Water: water retained
beneath the surface of the Earth
 Evaporation: water is heated by
the sun and reenters the
 Transpiration: water is drawn
from stomata in leaves of plants
 Water
that is not evaporated
travels from plants to the
atmosphere through
transpiration and returns to
the Earth as rain.
Respiration: carbon dioxide is given
off as a byproduct of cellular
 Combustion: carbon is released
when fossil fuels are burned
 Erosion: Shells of dead organisms
(made of calcium carbonate) form
limestone. As limestone erodes,
carbon becomes available for other
79% of the atmosphere is
 Most organisms cannot use
Nitrogen in its atmospheric form
 Nitrogen Fixation: a few bacteria
(found in the soil and on roots of
some plants) have enzymes that
will break down atmospheric
nitrogen and form ammonia
Assimilation: absorption and
incorporation of nitrogen into
plant and animal compounds
 Ammonification: the production
of ammonia by bacteria during
the decay of nitrogen-containing
 Nitrification: the production of
nitrate from ammonia
 Denitrification: the conversion
of nitrate to nitrogen gas
 Phosphorous
used in ATP and
 Phosphorous in rock dissolves
in water and is absorbed by
 Nonrenewable:
Do not
replenish themselves naturally
 Renewable:
themselves naturally
 Alternative
 Recycling (reduce, reuse,