Transforming Teaching: from more to less Y.M.Zubovic Chand K.Chauhan FACET Retreat, 2014 The Need for Transformation • • • • Lack of critical thinking Lack of independent thinking Lack of retention Inability to apply results in unfamiliar settings Transforming Goals Previous Goals • cover the content in an orderly manner • answer questions • prepare them to pass the exam • have them recall information on a test New Transformed Goals • teaching them how to think about a problem • search for an answer • listen and analyze a question presented in the class • see tests as opportunity for self-evaluation Transform Content Delivery Process: Talk less and listen more student engagement • • • • • Using advance organizers Restructuring class time Role as a facilitator Provide activities for deeper understanding Promote student-to-student interaction Using Advance Organizers • Handouts provided to the students prior to introducing a new concept • Topics included: prerequisite information, definitions, or algebraic skills, familiarity with the concepts • Benefits – Students can take their time to become familiar with the topic – Students make a connection between the new and previously covered topics – Motivate interest (need) in new topic – Allows a discussion at a deeper level in the class Advance Organizer: Identifying what we know and what we don’t know yet. Please read the following problems. For each of them: Identify the type of the data for independent, as well as for the dependent variable. Identify the method (tool) you will apply to study the relationship between the variables. Problem 1: A scientist wishes to investigate the relationship between X= # of hours of studies per week Y= scores on a test. The following data were obtained: X= 2 14 20 4 8 5 11 7 9 Y= 21 82 96 32 70 60 76 68 83 Problem 2 : A scientist wishes to investigate the relationship between X= a voter’s political affiliation, and Y= his/her income level. The partial data obtained were: X= D D R R I R R D D I R D ………………… Y= L L H M H L H M M H M H ………… (Note D=democrat, R=republican, I=Independent, L=low income, M=middle income, etc) Pre-requisite result: You may want to recall the following important result in probability: Suppose two events A and B are independent. Then P( both A and B occur) = P( A occurs). P( B occurs) Advance Organizers: Sorting the Situations • In a random sample of 30 math majors of a particular state , the mean expense/semester on text books is $325.00 with a standard deviation of $32.50. Compute a 99% confidence interval of the mean expense for all such students. • In a random sample of 20 biology majors of the same state, the mean expense/semester on text books is $340.00 with a standard deviation of $28.50. Do we have evidence to believe that the true mean expense/ semester on text books is higher for biology majors than for the math majors? We may assume that the variances are same for both populations. • In a random sample of 80 students of a particular university, 10 admitted to regularly using cell phone during lectures. Compute a 95% confidence interval of the true proportion of such students. Also check the conditions. Example: Questions as you read • Questions as You Read – Prior to the class • What is the difference between categorical and numerical data? – At beginning of the class • Identify each variable from the Echinacea study as categorical or numerical: – Age, Sex, Number of colds in previous year, Severity of sneezing (1=none to 4=severe), Weight Example: Real life applications • Before the class: – Go to the Hoosier Lottery website: www.hoosierlottery.com • Describe how Cash 5 is run • Describe how Daily 3 is run • Describe how Powerball is run • During the class: – In small groups discuss: • How are Cash 5 and Daily 3 similar? • How do Cash 5 and Daily 3 differ? • Is Powerball more similar to Cash 5 or Daily 3? Explain. – – – – Group report: summarize differences As a class, discuss the mathematical structure of the problems Introduction to multiplication rule and counting techniques Mathematical concept emerges from discussion of the problem Promote Continuous Learning • How to use students’ desire for good grade to motivate learning? – Frequent self evaluation opportunities – Variety of assessments (not just tests) – As we progress, our questions, evaluation, and grading process reflect our expectation of how their learning should be progressing Class Participation: Assessing conceptual understanding Circle the most appropriate answer: (3+3) 1) Suppose in a hypothesis testing problem the p value was found to be .01, or 1%. It means : a) The probability of H0 being true is 1%. b) The probability of H1 being true is 1%. c) The probability of observing, when H0 is true, a sample result as extreme as or more extreme, than the one we have observed is 1%. 2) Suppose in a hypothesis testing problem the p value was .239. It means : a) H0 should be rejected. b) We should fail to reject H0. c) Not enough information to make a decision. Example : Going Beyond Classroom Coverage : Assessing critical Thinking Given: Three independent populations and their test scores are as follows: Math majors (1) CS majors (2) Sample sizes 20 30 Sample mean scores 72 69 Sample variances 1.3 1.5 Assuming population variances are equal: Question 1: Find an estimate of the common variance for populations 1 and 2. Answer: Covered in the class. 19(1.3) 29(1.5) 48 Question 2: Find an estimate of the common variance for populations 1,2, and 3. Not covered in the class: 19(1.3) 29(1.5) 21(1.8) 69 Biology majors (3) 22 72.5 1.8 Assessing our Transformation • Planning a study in Fall 2014 with the students of Stat 340: Give them a test with questions similar to the conceptual questions given in stat 240 final, and evaluate their retention. • Give them critical thinking activity at the beginning and at the end of the semester and evaluate the progress. Transform Assessment Process • Promote continuous learning process • Variety of assessment process including formative and summative ( Formative for self evaluation and instructor feedback) • Questions assess their deeper understanding and not the ability to perform certain steps to get an answer. • Challenges include changing expectations of students and using their motivation for a good grade to encourage learning through the assessment process.