# Transforming Teaching: from more to less Y.M.Zubovic Chand K.Chauhan

```Transforming Teaching:
from more to less
Y.M.Zubovic
Chand K.Chauhan
FACET Retreat, 2014
The Need for Transformation
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Lack of critical thinking
Lack of independent thinking
Lack of retention
Inability to apply results in unfamiliar settings
Transforming Goals
Previous Goals
• cover the content in an
orderly manner
• prepare them to pass the
exam
• have them recall
information on a test
New Transformed Goals
• teaching them how to think
• listen and analyze a
question presented in the
class
• see tests as opportunity for
self-evaluation
Transform Content Delivery Process: Talk less
and listen more student engagement
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Restructuring class time
Role as a facilitator
Provide activities for deeper understanding
Promote student-to-student interaction
• Handouts provided to the students prior to introducing
a new concept
• Topics included: prerequisite information, definitions,
or algebraic skills, familiarity with the concepts
• Benefits
– Students can take their time to become familiar with the
topic
– Students make a connection between the new and
previously covered topics
– Motivate interest (need) in new topic
– Allows a discussion at a deeper level in the class
Advance Organizer: Identifying what we know
and what we don’t know yet.
Identify the type of the data for independent, as well as for the dependent variable.
Identify the method (tool) you will apply to study the relationship between the variables.
Problem 1: A scientist wishes to investigate the relationship between
X= # of hours of studies per week Y= scores on a test. The following data were obtained:
X=
2
14
20
4
8
5
11
7
9
Y=
21
82
96
32
70
60
76
68
83
Problem 2 : A scientist wishes to investigate the relationship between
X= a voter’s political affiliation, and Y= his/her income level. The partial data obtained were:
X= D D
R
R
I
R
R
D
D
I
R
D …………………
Y= L L H
M H
L
H
M
M H
M H …………
(Note D=democrat, R=republican, I=Independent, L=low income, M=middle income, etc)
Pre-requisite result: You may want to recall the following important result in probability:
Suppose two events A and B are independent. Then P( both A and B occur) = P( A occurs). P( B occurs)
• In a random sample of 30 math majors of a particular state , the mean
expense/semester on text books is \$325.00 with a standard deviation of
\$32.50. Compute a 99% confidence interval of the mean expense for all
such students.
• In a random sample of 20 biology majors of the same state, the mean
expense/semester on text books is \$340.00 with a standard deviation of
\$28.50. Do we have evidence to believe that the true mean expense/
semester on text books is higher for biology majors than for the math
majors? We may assume that the variances are same for both
populations.
• In a random sample of 80 students of a particular university, 10 admitted
to regularly using cell phone during lectures. Compute a 95% confidence
interval of the true proportion of such students. Also check the conditions.
– Prior to the class
• What is the difference between categorical and
numerical data?
– At beginning of the class
• Identify each variable from the Echinacea study as
categorical or numerical:
– Age, Sex, Number of colds in previous year, Severity of
sneezing (1=none to 4=severe), Weight
Example: Real life applications
• Before the class:
– Go to the Hoosier Lottery website: www.hoosierlottery.com
• Describe how Cash 5 is run
• Describe how Daily 3 is run
• Describe how Powerball is run
• During the class:
– In small groups discuss:
• How are Cash 5 and Daily 3 similar?
• How do Cash 5 and Daily 3 differ?
• Is Powerball more similar to Cash 5 or Daily 3? Explain.
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Group report: summarize differences
As a class, discuss the mathematical structure of the problems
Introduction to multiplication rule and counting techniques
Mathematical concept emerges from discussion of the problem
Promote Continuous Learning
• How to use students’ desire for good grade to
motivate learning?
– Frequent self evaluation opportunities
– Variety of assessments (not just tests)
– As we progress, our questions, evaluation, and
grading process reflect our expectation of how
their learning should be progressing
Class Participation:
Assessing conceptual understanding
Circle the most appropriate answer: (3+3)
1) Suppose in a hypothesis testing problem the p value was found to be .01,
or 1%. It means :
a) The probability of H0 being true is 1%.
b) The probability of H1 being true is 1%.
c) The probability of observing, when H0 is true, a sample result as extreme
as or more extreme, than the one we have observed is 1%.
2) Suppose in a hypothesis testing problem the p value was .239. It means :
a) H0 should be rejected.
b) We should fail to reject H0.
c) Not enough information to make a decision.
Example : Going Beyond Classroom Coverage :
Assessing critical Thinking
Given: Three independent populations and their test scores are as follows:
Math majors (1)
CS majors (2)
Sample sizes
20
30
Sample mean scores
72
69
Sample variances
1.3
1.5
Assuming population variances are equal:
Question 1:
Find an estimate of the common variance for populations 1 and 2.
Answer: Covered in the class. 19(1.3)  29(1.5)
48
Question 2:
Find an estimate of the common variance for populations 1,2, and 3.
Not covered in the class:
19(1.3)  29(1.5)  21(1.8)
69
Biology majors (3)
22
72.5
1.8
Assessing our Transformation
• Planning a study in Fall 2014 with the students
of Stat 340: Give them a test with questions
similar to the conceptual questions given in
stat 240 final, and evaluate their retention.
• Give them critical thinking activity at the
beginning and at the end of the semester and
evaluate the progress.
Transform Assessment Process
• Promote continuous learning process
• Variety of assessment process including formative
and summative ( Formative for self evaluation
and instructor feedback)
• Questions assess their deeper understanding and
not the ability to perform certain steps to get an