Newton’s Universal Law of Gravity Every object attracts every other object with a force that is directly proportional to the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the centers of the objects. Gravitational Force (N) M1 and M2 = 10 kg 8E-11 7E-11 6E-11 5E-11 4E-11 3E-11 2E-11 1E-11 0 0 20 40 60 Distance (m) 80 100 𝑚1 𝑚2 𝐹𝐺 = 𝐺 2 𝑟 G = Universal Gravitational Constant 6.67E-11 Nkg-2m2 m1 = mass 1 (kg) m2 = mass 2 (kg) r = distance between the centers (m) F1 = F 2 As shown in the diagram below, the force acting on two masses separated by a distance d is 40 N. Calculate the force for each of the following changes: m1 40N 40N m2 r The distance between the masses is doubled. Mass 1 is doubled. The distance between the masses is halved and both masses are doubled. The distance is doubled and both the masses are doubled. Use Newton’s Universal Law of Gravity to solve for the unknown quantity in each row of the table shown below Force Mass 1 Mass 2 distance 40 kg 70 kg 2m 6.0 x 10^24 kg 7.4 x 10^22 kg 3.8 x 10^8 m 600 N 6.0 x 10^24 kg 60 kg 3 x 10^-7 kg 200 kg 5m The mass of the Earth is 6.0E24kg and its radius is 6.4E6 meters. Find the gravitational force on a 60kg man standing on the Earth. What would the gravitational force be on him in the international space station which is orbiting at a height of 430km above the Earth’s surface? What would his mass be?