Mesopotamia Unit

advertisement

Mesopotamia Unit

Settled community, w/ domesticated plants/animals

Could support large populations

As population increase, so did complexity

One earliest village

Catal Huyuk

Sumer 1 st civilization

5000 BCE develop city states S. Mesopotamia

Invented wheel, buildings, irrigation systems, plow, bronze weapons, writing (cuneiform)

Important:

Each city state independent

City states fought o/ irrigable land & trading rights

Future leaders would try unite lands/people into empire

“Land b/t Rivers”

Tigris & Euphrates

Flood April-June

Modern day Iraq

Arid climate

Very hot & dry, little rainfall

Regional differences however

Resources

Had water & fertile soil = “gifts”

Lacked stone, timber, copper, tin, iron, gold

Encouraged foreign trade

Geography/Climate caused people have pessimistic attitude

Akkad

Sargon the Great

Babylonia

Hammurabi

Assyria

Assurnasirpal

Sennacherib

Esarhaddon

Assurbanipal

Babylonia II

Nabopolassar

Nebuchsdnezzar

Hammurabi Code Project

282 percepts/laws

Dealt w/ social, family issues

Healthcare

Criminal Justice System

Family Life

Jobs

Slaves

Military

1.

2.

3.

4.

Was Hammurabi’s form of justice fair?

Were the laws appropriate for their time period?

Do you think these laws were actively followed and enforced?

Should laws promote punishment or reform?

Polytheistic

Belief many gods

Anthropomorphic

Human-like characteristics

Had human emotions

Compassionate, cruel

Also envisioned darker powers

(demons/monsters)

Pazuzu

Lamashtu

Huwawa

1.

2.

3.

4.

An/Anu

Father of Gods; God of

Sky

Enlil

God of Air

Utu/Shamash

Sun God; God of Truth and Justice

Nanna/Sin

Moon God

5.

6.

7.

8.

Inanna/Ishtar

Goddess of Love and War

Ninhursag

Mother Earth

Enki/Ea

God of Fresh Waters; God of Magic, Wisdom, Arts

Marduk

National God of Babylon

Tiered temple made of mud-bricks

Dwellings places of the gods

Each city-state had a patron god

Only priests permitted inside ziggurat

In earliest days, King chief priest

Later professional priesthoods

Various duties:

Ritual slaughter animals

Interpret omens

Singing songs

Provide regular offerings of food and refreshments to deity

Practice of women offering sex for pay on the sacred grounds of the Temple of Ishtar

Participated public festivals

Tried to predict “heaven’s will”

Exorcism

No notion of an afterlife where the good were rewarded

Life after Death was dismal and bleak

“Land of No Return”

What then was the incentive for living a pious life?

Buddhas of Bamiyan Pyramid Menkaure

Mosel Museum Temple Bel

4 Horses St. Marks The Amber Room

Download