WORLD WAR I 1914-1919 1. LONG RANGE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I a. Nationalism b. Militarism c . Imperialism d. Secret alliances 2. Long range causes of U.S. involvement: a. Sympathy for England and France b. Economic Ties: 1. We have loaned the allies over 2.25 billion dollars, if they lose the war, will we be repaid? c. Fear of and hostility toward German power 1. supported a thinly veiled dictatorship controlled by the Kaiser and the military 2. invasion of Belgium d. Allied propaganda – transatlantic cable was in the control of the Allies - so all news coming from the war was tilted in their favor 3. Short Range Causes of U.S. Intervention: a. Unrestricted German submarine warfare U.S. contended that German submarines violated international law by interfering with our freedom of the seas. Before we entered the war 200+ Americans died as a result of German submarine warfare b. Sinking of the Lusitania – 1915 A British passenger liner that was sunk by the Germans. 1000+ lives were lost 128 Americans were killed Allied Propaganda c. Sussex Pledge: 1916 Germany agrees to not sink merchant vessels without first attempting to save lives. Germany demands that we talk the British into dismantling their blockade of the North Sea. When we can’t accomplish that, they return to unrestricted submarine warfare. d. Zimmerman note: March 1, 1917 Coded message sent from German minister to German diplomat in Mexico. If Mexico enters war on Germany’s side – they will get land lost to the U.S. Zimmerman Note and decoded copy. 4. Election of 1916: Submarine warfare and the relationship of the U.S. to the European powers - became the major political issues. Democratic Candidate : Woodrow Wilson against a large standing army in peace time. 1916 – he doubled the size of the army campaigned under the title of “kept us out of the war” Republican candidate: Charles Evans Hughes known as the “war candidate” - held moderate position Woodrow Wilson Charles Evans Hughes America’s desire for peace - elected Wilson 5. The United States at War 1917-1918 a. Presidential power: 1. Increase the power of the President Congress gave the Pres. broad powers to direct the economy and spur the war effort. b. Mobilizing the economy: 1. War Industries Board - allocated raw materials and expanded war production 2. War Labor Board - mediate labor disputes to prevent work stoppages 3. Railroad Administration - took control of railroads , unifying and improving their operations. 4. The Fuel Administration - stepped up the production of coal, gas, and oil. 5. Food Administration - increased food output and encouraged the public to observe “wheatless” and “meatless” days. c. Punishing espionage and sedition: 1. Espionage Act - 1917 provided penalties for spying, sabotage, obstructing the war effort. 2. Sedition Act - 1918 provided penalties for speaking or writing against the American form of government or the war effort. These laws led to the arrest of some 1500 pacifists and pro-Germans, reflected wartime unwillingness To tolerate dissent. Committee on Public Information: - directed by George Creel -used every imaginable medium to raise American consciousness to the war effort. -patriotic songs - Over There -posters - Uncle Sam -four minute men - men who went throughout the U.S. giving four minute patriotic speeches. 3. Schenck v U.S. 1919 Charles Schenck was responsible for printing, distributing, and mailing to prospective military draftees during WWI. This was in violation of the Espionage Act. . Schenck appealed his conviction to the Supreme Court - the court decided that the conviction was valid because his actions created “a clear and present danger” to the country. 4. Financing the war: a. Raised income taxes and levied new and heavier excise taxes, secured 1/3 of the money needed $11b b. Borrowed from the American people sold Liberty and Victory bonds - secured 2/3 of the money needed $21b 5. Providing Military Forces: Congress passed several Selective Service Acts - drafts American army: 2 million volunteers 3 million draftees 6. Military aspects of the War: a. Worldwide involvement: all major nations in the world involved in a war for the first time. b. New weapons: 1. dirigibles 2. submarines 3. giant artillery guns (Big Bertha) 4. poison gas 5. airplane Effects of mustard gas c. Naval Warfare: British blockade of North Sea - resulted in 250,000 Germans dying of starvation. German Unrestricted Submarine warfare. U. S. began to use the “convoy” system in crossing the Atlantic Ocean. 6. Germany surrenders on November 11, 1918. 7. Treaty of Versailles: a. Territorial Changes: Germany surrendered: 1. Alsace-Lorraine 2. Minor border regions to Denmark and Belgium 3. Parts of Prussia 4. Saar Valley and Rhine Valley b. Colonial losses: Germany ceded all its colonies to the Allies, to be held as League of Nations Mandates. c. Disarmament: 1. German army was limited to 100,000 volunteers 2. Conscription was forbidden 3. Rhineland was demilitarized 4. Navy reduced to a few nations 5. Submarines, military aircraft, and war war industries were prohibited. d. War Guilt and Reparations: Germany accepted sole responsibility for the war and thus accepted the entire cost of war e. League of Nations: world-wide organization aimed at avoiding future wars. 8. Results of WWI: a. Social: 1. almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million wounded. 2. millions of civilians died 3. world left with a legacy of hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism b. Economic: 1. total cost of war over $350 billion 2. after war international trade suffered 3. Communism spreads throughout Russia 4. economic dislocation helps create Depression c. Political: a. Three major dynasties were dethroned 1. Hohenzollerns of Germany 2. Hapsburgs of Austria-Hungary 3. Romanovs of Russia b. New nations arose in Central Europe c. Beset by economic and political discontent , many European countries turned to dictatorships - Russia, Italy and Germany d. League of Nations was formed e. U.S. emerges as a world power.