Chicago: Notes Sample Paper with Bibliography 

The following is an example
of a Chicago Style paper in
the Notes Bibliography (NB)
format INCLUDING a
The title of the
paper is centered
and in all capital
letters, then placed
on the page about
1/3 from the top
ALL Chicago papers should be
formatted to have:
 A legible font in 11-12 point size
 Double-spaced text
 1” margins on all sides
Squatty McCupcakes
Art 3200: Modern Unicorns
April 13, 2015
EVERY time you reference a source
(including direct quotes, paraphrases, and
summaries - any source material gathered from
another author) you MUST use a footnote, endnote,
and/or in-text citation to cite your source and avoid
Down another 1/3 of the
page lists the following and
should be centered and
Course #: Course title
Page #’s begin on
the first page of text
and are placed in
the top right corners
Our world has seen many wondrous and fantastical creatures, but perhaps most popular
is the unicorn. History involves some great moments as it recounts many notable unicorns: The
Last Unicorn1 who freed the world’s unicorns from imprisonment in the sea, Unico2 who was
NB style papers
use notes to
credit sources.
Notice the
“1” after The
Last Unicorn
The “1” indicates
that there is a
note citing this
source material.
At the bottom of
page 1, a
footnote labeled
with “1” cites
the source
gifted in sharing happiness, and Twilight Sparkle of My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic3 who
learns that friendship is truly a powerful and magical force. Unicorns have phenomenal mystic
powers and have influenced culture with their sparkle and supreme greatness. This paper shall
follow the course of the unicorn through human history, from its inception to its decline, and its
ascension into popular culture.
The myth of the unicorn was first documented in ancient Indian text and marks the
beginning of the unicorn empire that is destined to last through eternity, adding more and
more unicorns to its annals. The diversity in the unicorn empire came because of the number of
admirers unicorns were able to incorporate into their minions and influence to create visual
representations of their likeness and magic. Development in the areas of art, literature, and
philosophy took place in the unicorn empire, as it continuously borrowed from various
civilizations and cultures. The unicorns left such a mark on many world cultures that artists and
writers were able to spread unicorn sparkle all over the world.
Unicorns are intelligent creatures that avoided human discovery for some millennia.
Hunt claims that unicorns were first documented by natural historians and were located in
1. Bass and Rankin, Jr., The Last Unicorn, DVD.
Footnotes occur on
the page that the
source was used.
Note’s 1-3 occur on
page 1 and are
highlighted in the text
on page 1.
2. Morano, Unico, DVD.
3. Faust, My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic, Television Show.
To cite sources in an NB paper, footnotes
are typically used to credit sources. Since
the paper includes a bibliography, the
notes follow the short format which
includes the AuthorLastName, Title of
the Work, and page number(s) for
written sources when citing specific
aspects of a source
For example: Smith, Unicorns Unite
Smith, Unicorns Unite, 5-6
India.4 Unicorns cleverly disguised themselves as other horned animals to avoid discovery,
which kept unicorns hidden from the human world for hundreds of years.5 As myths of the
unicorns travelled across cultures and time, it spurred humankind to seek unicorns for the
benefit of their mystical powers.
During the renaissance, royalty were keen to hunt and trap unicorns in order to steal
their horns.6 Research and history is unclear as to the development of strategies which were
believed to attract unicorns and allow capture; however, it was believed that virgin maidens
could attract the unicorn.7 The desire to acquire unicorn horns and prevalent belief that their
horns were imbued with phenomenal healing properties causes unicorns to be hunted
relentlessly and pushed them into hiding.8 The belief in the potential for human benefit from
unicorns and demand from royalty likely influenced the influx of artistic representations, such
as the Hunt of the Unicorn tapestries.9 Although efforts to discover and capture unicorns rose
greatly during the renaissance, unicorns remained clever enough to avoid humans, resulting in
an influx of fake unicorn horns from narwhals.
You may find that you will use the
times. When
Unicorns continued to fascinate humans and became more and same
in visual
using the same source consecutively,
uses the
term "ibid"
cultures. Representations of unicorns grew in tapestries, paintings, European
(meaning, "in the same place") to
indicate to the reader that you are
4. Hunt, “The Lore of the Unicorn,” 78.
using the same source as referenced
immediately above.
5. Ibid.
6. Giblin and McDermott, The Truth About Unicorns, 48-49.
7. Ibid., 128-30.
8. Hunt, “The Lore of the Unicorn,” 78.
9. Williamson, The Oak King, The Holly King, and The Unicorn, 4-28.
On the left, Note 5 is using the same
source and page number of note 4.
Note 7 is using the same source as
note 6, but a different page number.
Note 8 is using a previously mentioned
source, but since it is not the same as
the source in note 7, the short version
is used to indicate that the source has
shifted from the previously mentioned
sculptures, Asian scrolls; which further supported various cultures preceding religious texts
which mention the unicorn. Although unicorns remained inconspicuous, human fascination
with unicorns gave rise to visual representations.10 Through visual culture, unicorns became
firmly rooted in human history. For a time, unicorns quietly retreated from human eyes to
remain safe from those who would hunt them for their precious horns.11 Although the unicorns
fled, the idea of the unicorn continued to enchant human hearts.
As visual representations continued to spread throughout the world, unicorns began to
bleed heavily into popular culture through comics and film, thus ensnaring humans under their
sparkly spell. While there are many examples of unicorns in popular culture, The Last Unicorn
and My Little Pony have regained a firm foothold in current popular culture. Both titles have
benefitted from their fan base to further promote unicorns. The Last Unicorn is currently
touring with the author Peter S. Beagle, the author of the book which the movie is based upon,
and is revisiting theaters and unicorn fans for the first time since 1982.12 My Little Pony, which
was originally launched in 1983, has gone through four re-releases.13 Arguably, the 2010 release
of My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic, has been the most successful relaunch of the series and
enraptured not only female fans but also males, whom are often referred to as “bronies.” 14 As
10. Caillois and Walker, “The Myth of the Unicorn,” 17-23.
11. Williamson, The Oak King, The Holly King, and The Unicorn, 4-28.
12. The Last Unicorn Screening Tour, Conlan Press, 2013,
13. Giblin and McDermott, The Truth About Unicorns, 105-06.
14. Ibid., 108.
unicorns continue to saturate popular culture, the magic and sparkle grows in the hearts of
Though unicorns remain mysterious and elusive, their presence in the hearts of those
who love them remains strong and sparkly. Though the existence of unicorns began before the
introduction of humans, the myth of the unicorn was constructed by them. The power unicorns
possessed was enough to drive humans to try and acquire such power and to fascinate humans
enough that visual representations of unicorns mirrored their importance to human culture.
However, since the ascension of the unicorn empire, Twilight Sparkle of My Little Pony, reminds
humans of the great power in friendship.
The bibliography should begin on
a new page with all entries
alphabetized A to Z
Caillois, Roger and Walker, Scott R. “The Myth of the Unicorn,” Diogenes 30, no. 119: (1982) 1-23.
Giblin, James and McDermott, Michael. The Truth About Unicorns. New York, N.Y: Harper Collins
Publishers, 1991.
Hunt, Kenneth. “The Lore of the Unicorn,” Colonial Homes 22, no. 6 (1996): 78.
The Last Unicorn. Directed by Jules Bass and Arthur Rankin, Jr. 1982. Pinewood, England: ITC
Entertainment, 2007. DVD.
“The Last Unicorn Screening Tour.” Conlan Press. 2013,
My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. Created by Lauren Faust, Produced by Hasbro Studios and
DHXMedia, 2010. The Hub Network. Television Show.
Unico. Directed by Moribi Morano. 1983. Japan: Madhouse and Discotek Media, 2012. DVD.
Williamson, John. The Oak King, The Holly King, and The Unicorn: The Myths and Symbolism of The
Unicorn Tapestries. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1986.
Spaces between
bibliographic entries
are double-spaced
Further Resources
ECU Writing
ECU Writing Resources
Chicago Manual Citation Guide
Purdue OWL Chicago Resource
Turabian Citation Guide
entries are
and begin
with the first
line flush left
and all
lines for that
entry are