Title: Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies and the impact on well-being of employees and effectiveness in Danish private and public firms. Kjeld Nielsen Department of Sociology and Social Work Aalborg University E-mail: Kjeld@socsci.aau.dk Peter Nielsen Department of Political Science Aalborg University Email: Peter@socsci.aau.dk Abstract This article presents a new view of human resources deployment where management gives employees discretion e.g. self-control, but also seeks commitment in the work organization, that motivates and involves employees and create foundation of well-being and effectiveness (individual innovative behavior) among employees. This view rises following research question: How do HRM strategies connect to the employee psychological well-being and effectiveness? The analytical results build on data from project Meadow (Employee and Employer Survey 2012) of Danish firms. The research in this paper analyzes self-reported informations from a questionnaire answered by 3362 employees (response rate 37,2) belong to both private and public sectors. The results are that the two strategies, (control and commitment strategy) generally have ambiguous impact on well-being and effectiveness. But both control and commitment strategy are submitting a changed and intensively work context, leads to a conflicting outcome on low well-being and positive effectiveness. Furthermore, to support evidence of the conflicting outcome in the HRM research literature, it can also be concluded that well-being scores high on both organizational and job commitment, but this connection has no mediated and significant impact on effectiveness. This result can be interpreted within a mixed HR strategy of a decentralized self-control, but a centralized commitment which are sprouting up in the knowledge society.