Peace in the Great Lakes States: The case of Zanzibar in Tanzania .

Climate Change and Health in the
context of Emergencies/Fragile States
Niall Roche, Member of the Irish Forum
for Global Health
Trinity Development Research Week
10th November 2011
• Observed perspective rather than research
gained perspective
• Focus on the Environmental Health (including
WASH) aspects of Health and Climate Change
• Viewing Climate Change as a cross cutting or
mainstreaming issue
Climate Change and Health
• Direct Effects – European heatwave in 2003
resulting in 27,000 - 40,000 excess deaths.
• Indirect Effects
Climate Change and Health (Indirect)
• Changing patterns of disease – diarrhoea, malaria,
dengue fever for example
• Food security threatened due to drought and
unpredictable rainfall
“East Africa is experiencing its worst drought in sixty years. Ten million
people in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia are now dependent on food
aid” (Trocaire communication 7th Nov. 2011)
• Water Security problems due to decreased access to
fresh water - ground water levels in Eritrea said to be dropping by as
much as 1 metre per year.
Climate Change and Health (Indirect)
• Vulnerable shelter and human settlements ie
due to sea level rises
• Extreme climatic events – floods,cyclones etc.
• Forced migration coupled with population
How is climate change
mainstreamed into Primary Health
Care programmatic activities?
Deh Poyon village, Ishkashim district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. 18th Oct 2011
Photo: Niall Roche
Southern Sudan, April 2011
Photo: Niall Roche
How is climate change
mainstreamed into these
engineering activities that
have a health objective?
Mainstreaming at the Policy Level
• Afghanistan - Strategic
Plan for the Ministry of
Public Health 20112015
• 10 Strategic Directions
• 2 of those are Env.
Health related
Mainstreaming at the Policy Level
• No. 8 Support health
promotion and
• Strategic plan
developed through a
highly participatory
• No. 9 Advocate for and
promote healthy
• A core value is Evidence
based decision making!!
9. Advocate for and promote
healthy environments
SO1- to strengthen the stewardship
role of the MoPH in Env. Health
SO2- to advocate for increased
availability of safe drinking water in
order to reduce the burden of
disease from contaminated water
SO3- to increase food safety
practices to prevent food borne
illnesses in food service and retail
SO4-to develop a systematic
framework to lead a national
process to reduce air pollution and
promote clean air
SO5- to create a national
multisectoral radiation protection
forum to agree on and advocate for
safe levels of radiation in the
country including increasing
industry and public awareness on
the issue
SO6 – to create a national multistakeholder mechanism for the
management of garbage and
hazardous wastes
SO7 – To improve hygiene and
sanitation throughout the country
among the general public and
health workers
SO8 – to build capacity and
improve occupational health and
safety among all workplaces
Evidence Base?
• No evidence base presented for the list of Strategic
• Radiation protection seems illogical and seems to have
a higher priority purely from its positioning on the list
• No sense that climate change issues have been
“mainstreamed” into the document. No conclusions
developed about an increase in extreme climatic
events (droughts, floods, landslides etc.) and how the
health system should respond.
Role of Research
• To mainstream climate change externally
(programmatic level) and internally (policies and
people) including disaster risk management
• Challenge the evidence base for policy decisions
through research.
• Engage in researching trends (on water
availability for example) and modelling predicted
Thank You
[email protected]