1 SPEAKER WORKSHEET: THE WRITING PROCESS TOPIC / TITLE: (Type) Informative Persuasive Entertainment OCCASION / SITUATION: SPECIFIC PURPOSE: (At the end of my speech, the audience will) What you want the audience to know, do, believe or remember at the end of your speech * Audience centered * Behavior oriented What you want to accomplish. At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to: a. to define sexual harassment b. to identify 3 reasons why… c. Will volunteer to give blood on… d. to explain benefits of the exercise. MAIN IDEA: (One complete sentence summary, a direct statement) One sentence summary. (thesis statement, proposition, central idea) 1. Topic 2. What you want to say about subject. a. Statement NEVER a question. b. Specific and focused. c. Gives direction to speech. ( Audience will know what speech is about and what/where you are going with topic ) d. What speaker will prove with evidence. 2 AUDIENCE ANALYSIS: (Whom are you talking to?) DEMOGRAPHICS: (Specifics, education, age, finances, religion, membership, race, occupation) VALUES, ATTITUDES, BELIEFS: (Attitude, audience reaction to topic, beliefs, why audience has attitude, values: underlying moral code Values: Moral code of most audience members. How their values apply to your topic (example: honesty, education, patriotism and faith ) * Hard to change. Beliefs: Determines attitudes, true or false, can be changed with evidence. Attitudes: Like / dislikes, favorable / unfavorable, learned (changed fairly easily) * Determines behavior. What audience feels about topic. How do you know when audience is listening? During and after. CREDIBILITY TECHNIQUES: (Believability – sources, delivery techniques, experience, audience memory aids, enthusiasm) What speaker does to help the audience believe and remember his/her purpose, how speaker can be considered the expert. 5 C’s Competence: Knowledgeable Memory devices Repeat main idea 3X * Experience Delivery techniques (evaluation sheet) Composure / confidence: Covers mistakes, delivery Common ground: 3 Especially if hostile or neutral audience. Charisma: Passion, energy, commitment, sincerity, belief. Credit sources: Identify where your evidence was obtained, your credentials. Initial Credibility Posture, eye contact, attention getter, appearance, clear topic and main idea, credentials, BREATH, begins when you leave your seat, appeals. Derived Credibility Common ground, (WIIFM) What’s In It For Me, Clear organization, evidence, PRACTICE, relates to main idea. Terminal Credibility Effective conclusion, posture, eye contact, remind audience of main idea, (WIIFM) What’s In It For Me (appeals), willing and able to answer questions, ends when returned to seat. APPEALS (NEEDS, MOTIVATIONS): (How can this benefit audience; needs, motivation) (WIIFM) What’s In It For Me motivate audience, how will listeners benefit. MASLOW’S NEEDS Physiological: Physical Safety: Insurance, seat belts, protect loved ones. Social Belonging: Gives identity, part of a whole, love needs, relationship, recreation. Esteem: " I am somebody " 4 Recognition, rewards, pat on the back, approval Self-actualization: potential, “BE ALL YOU CAN BE”, personal improvement, satisfaction, knowledge. Courage Compassion Success Adventure Responsibility Patriotism Idealism Brotherhood Honor Health Competition Equality Family, friendship Financial stability Pleasure Love, God, Loyalty Duty Honesty Positive benefits Negative benefits (" IF…. Then….") * FEAR * protect loved ones VISUAL AIDS: (TYPE AND PURPOSE) What kind, why are you using this type? Makes message clearer and more memorable, reinforces info, interesting * Murphy's Law * aid only RESEARCH SOURCES: (M.L.A STYLE) (Identify within speech) List sources MLA style and credit during speech " In a recent article written for News Week magazine, author Joe Shmoe…" " According to Plain Jane, author of…” SUPPORT TECHNIQUES: (Types of proof, evidence) Quotes, graphs, pictures, statistics, examples, humor, definitions, explanations, demonstrate, analyze, refer to common knowledge of historical event, common beliefs or interests. 5 ORGANIZATION TECHNIQUES: (One main technique) How you say what you want to say, the frame. Information speech Time sequence - chronological Spatial - direction, description of physical placement Cause / effect - reasons why, results Hierarchy - order of importance Topical - most versatile Types, qualities and categories Advantages / Disadvantages Similarities / Differences Compare / Contrast Pro / Con Take a large topic and speak on one aspect of it PERSUASION Problem / solution Refutation Need / Plan Hierarchy Cause / Effect * Monroe’s Motivated Sequence / inspiration speeches Attention Need Satisfaction (plan) Visualization Action 6 LANGUAGE TECHNIQUES: (Literary skills – metaphor, simile, repetition, parallelism, etc.) * Repetition Catchy phrase Acronym TTSP, TDY, LADDER INTRODUCTION: (Technique) What will you do to get the audiences attention? Examples, personal experience, quote, rhetorical question, startling fact or statement, statistic, refer to occasion, place, historical event, common knowledge, joke, definition (operational, own words, example, dictionary), main idea, purpose OUTLINE: Roman Sentence Key word phrases > 3 x 5 cards CONCLUSION: (Technique - don't quit) Restate thesis, summarize important points, motivate response, closure Example, quote, statistic, answer question, preview future, positive or negative benefits, pose question, call for action, challenge, dramatic statement, refer to occasion, history, place, common knowledge, recent event, joke, story I hope it's break time!