Energy Efficient Buildings

Energy Efficient Buildings:
Issues, Research Opportunities
Leon Glicksman
Building Technology Program
January 27, 2005
US Energy Consumption
U.S. Energy Use
U.S. Buildings
•38 % of total energy ( in UK 50 % )
•67 % of electricity
•90% of time spent indoors
•Major health problems: indoor climate
1Quad = 10 15 BTU
Average Lifetime of Buildings
United States Commercial Buildings
Average Age of US Cars and Trucks
US Dept of Transportation
New Building Construction in
Developing Countries
• ~ 10 M new residence units/year!
• Commercial building rate ~ ∑ Western
“Exudes Green”
Green Performance
Heritage 2000 Artist’s Rendering
Energy Efficient
Copenhagen: Cooled only by
Natural Ventilation
Energy Efficient
Not very energy efficient
Building Technology Program
• Joint Architecture/ ME / Civil
• 5 Faculty
• ~ 20 graduate students
Energy Research
Building Technology Group
• Natural ventilation in commercial buildings
– Air flow Prediction: scale models, numerical methods
– Multiple Stable States
• Integrated design:
– design tools
– Developing countries
• Controls
– Optimization
– Remote monitoring
• Advanced envelopes: double skin facades
• Thermal insulation: fundamental mechanisms
• Daylighting
• Lifecycle evaluation: real options for flexible designs
Double Skin Building Facades
• Goals include
– Energy conservation &
ecological benefits
– High level of thermal and
visual comfort
– Architectural transparency
– Noise Reduction
– Security
– Natural Ventilation
The German Towers
Commerzbank, Frankfurt
RWE Ag, Essen
Natural Ventilated Building, Aldwyck
Housing-Luton England
Airflow pattern compared between
simulation and visualization
Visualized air flow direction
Luton Air Model-MIT
10th Scale Model of Luton Building
Airflow Measurements compare to building
Airflow Visualization techniques
MIT Design Advisor
Simple Tool
Use in the Conceptual Design Stage
Compare Scenarios
Real Time Calculations
Real Time Optimization
Mechanical Pure natural Hybrid ventilation
Pure natural
Hybrid ventilation