How to do Footnotes or Endnotes


How to Do Footnotes or Endnotes for a History Paper History papers require citations of sources in either footnote or endnote form, not in parenthetical references (which are standard for some other subjects.) Follow the Chicago style form. The only difference between footnotes and endnotes is where the citations appear. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, and endnotes appear on a separate page at the end of the paper.


You can quote information from the sources in two different ways: 1.

Direct Quotations

: a.





Copied directly from the source. Use only for interesting, unusual, or exceptionally well-put statements. Avoid using direct quotes from secondary sources. Less than 20 percent of the paper should be in direct quotes. Form: i.

Short Direct Quotations: Put in quotation marks and write into the text. Insert a footnote/endnote number at the end of the sentence. EXAMPLE Many writers noticed the problems of the eighteenth century. “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,” wrote Charles Dickens.

1 He was not the only author to note that the contrast . . . ii.

Long Direct Quotations: (more than four typed lines): Begin on a new line, indent one-half inch from the left and right margins, and do not use quotation marks. Insert footnote number at the end of the sentence. EXAMPLE Muslim merchants often carried the message of Islam with them into West Africa. These part time missionaries took advantage of opportunities to convince African rulers to convert. In 1068, Abu Ubaydallah al-Bakri recorded how the king of Malal converted: His country became afflicted with drought one year following another. . . . The king had as his guest a Muslim . . . who pressed the king until the latter accepted Islam . . . .They prayed for a part of the night, the Muslim reciting invocations and 1 Charles Dickens,

A Tale of Two Cities

, edited by Harold Bloom (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987), 1.

the king saying “Amen.” The dawn had just started to break when God caused abundant rain to descend upon them.” 2 While the unknown Muslim merchant may have just been lucky, the king of Malal certainly . . .


Indirect Quotations


In this case, you are using information from a source but writing it in your own words. b.

DO NOT COPY MORE THAN TWO WORDS IN A ROW from a source, and change the entire structure of the sentence. Otherwise, it’s PLAGIARISM, which earns an F. c.

Write indirect quotations into the text without quotation marks or indenting. Just d.

insert an endnote number at the end of the sentence. Use an indirect quotation and endnote for any information you did not know before you read that source. e.

Always use an endnote for the following types of information: i.

statistics ii.


statements of opinion little-known facts and details (found in only one source) EXAMPLE Muslim merchants often carried the message of Islam with them into West Africa. These part time missionaries took advantage of opportunities to convince African rulers to convert. Abu Ubaydallah al-Bakri described how a visiting Muslim merchant convinced the king of Malal to convert to Islam.

3 The kingdom of Malal had been suffering from a terrible drought. While the Muslim merchant was visiting, he talked to the king about the power of the religion of Islam. The king was so impressed that he converted. After the Muslim and the king prayed together, it began to rain. The king was then convinced that Islam was the correct religion for his people . . .

Endnote Rules


Number endnotes consecutively starting from “1” all through the paper. 2.

Do not start over at “1” on a new page. Do not reuse numbers. If you use a source more than once, each endnote will have its own number depending on its place in the sequence of endnotes. 2 al-Bakri, Abu Ubaydallah, “A Description of 11 th Century Ghana,” in

Exploring the Global Past: Original Sources in World History, Volume 1

, edited by Dale Crandall-Bear (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 2001), 151. 3 al-Bakri, “Description,” 151.



Insert endnote numbers at the end of sentences, not in the middle. YOU SHOULD HAVE 4 TO 6 ENDNOTES PER PAGE. 5.

Method of Inserting: Microsoft 2003 Click on “insert” on the top bar. Click on “references.” Choose footnotes or endnotes. If you choose endnotes, change the i, ii, iii, to numbers. The program will put a number in the text & take you to the bottom of the page, where you type in the citation. Microsoft 2007 Click on “references”. Click on “Insert Footnote” or “Insert Endnote.” 6.

What to Put in Citations: The contents of endnote citations vary depending on the type of source (article in a book, whole book, magazine article, film etc.) For articles in books (like the sources you have for this paper), this is the form: author, “title of article”, in

title of book

, edited by name of editor (Place of publication: name of publisher, date of publication), exact page number for the quote. (see 1 and 2 for examples) a.


All the font changes & punctuation really matter. For subsequent endnotes from the same source, use a short form: author’s last name, short title, exact page number. (see 3 for example)