+ Scientific Method Review

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Scientific Method
Review
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Definition
 Basically:
 Form
hypothesis
 Create design/experiment
 Observations
 Analyze data
 Reach conclusions
 Re-test
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Goals of Scientific Method
 Description
 Nomothetic
approach
 Generalizations
 About a diverse population
 Idiographic approach
 Specifics
 About the individual
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Goals of Scientific Method

Prediction

Correlational Study

Used to show a relationship between two variables

Scores on one variable are used to predict scores on a
second variable

Doesn’t tell you “why”

Three possible results: positive, negative, no correlation
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Goals of Scientific Method

Understanding

Three conditions for making a causal inference


Covariation of events

Two events vary together

When one event changes, the other must change
Time-order relationship



The presumed cause must occur before the presumed effect
Elimination of plausible alternative causes
Creating change
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Extra Vocabulary

Reliability


Validity


The degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure
Theory


The degree to which a measurement device yields consistent
results under varying conditions
A well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural
world
Hypothesis

Educated guess
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