CHAPTER 16 Writing Essays Using Sources Directions: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each statement. 1. Finding appropriate sources may involve a. consulting a reference librarian. b. sampling a variety of viewpoints. c. looking for sources that lead to other sources. d. all of the above. 2. Reading sources selectively involves all of the following except a. skimming to avoid parts that are not relevant. b. reading entire books and articles thoroughly. c. previewing useful sections to get an overview of the material. d. using abstracts or summaries as a guide to an article's organization. 3. If you are uncertain about the information on a Web site, you should a. assume that it is reliable and trustworthy. b. cross-check the information with another source. c. make sure the site has a commercial sponsor. d. follow the links to a more reliable-looking source. 4. Keeping track of the sources you use is important because a. you are more likely to avoid plagiarism. b. all sources you use must be cited. c. you may want to refer to the source again. d. all of the above. 5. Before consulting sources to support your ideas, you should first a. decide on a working thesis statement. b. see what others have said about your topic. c. see what types of sources are available on your topic. d. identify what types of supporting information are necessary. 6. Synthesis can best be described as a process of a. summarizing sources in a works cited page. b. using sources to develop new ideas or draw conclusions. c. restating someone elseʼs ideas in your own words. d. analyzing the accuracy and authenticity of sources. 7. When you are comparing sources, you should ask: a. On what do the sources agree and disagree? b. Are the sourcesʼ viewpoints toward the subject similar or different? c. Does each source provide supporting evidence for major points? d. all of the above. 8. You can incorporate researched information in an essay by doing all of the following except a. summarizing or paraphrasing information. b. using material without documentation. c. giving proper credit to your sources. d. directly quoting the authors. 9. When you include a quotation using Modern Language Association (MLA) style, you should a. signal your reader that a quotation is to follow. b. copy the authorʼs words exactly and enclose them in quotation marks. c. set quotations longer than four sentences apart from the rest of your essay. d. do all of the above. 10. One characteristic of MLA style is that it a. does not use a system of in-text citation. b. is typically used in English and humanities papers. c. is only used in social science papers. d. does not list works cited in alphabetical order. Directions: After reading this passage from a psychology textbook, answer the questions that follow by circling the letter of the choice that best completes each statement. 1 Attitude Formation Attitude formation is the result of a number of different influences with only one thing in common: They are all forms of learning. 2 Direct Contact. One way in which attitudes are formed is by direct contact with the person, idea, situation, or object that is the focus of the attitude. For example, a child who tries brussels sprouts for the first time and dislikes them will form a negative attitude about brussels sprouts. Later that negative attitude may be generalized to other foods that are green or have a similar taste. 3 Direct Instruction. Another way attitudes are formed is through direct instruction, either by parents or some other individual. Parents may tell their children that smoking cigarettes is dangerous and unhealthy, for example. Some children will form a negative attitude about smoking as a result. 4 Interaction with Others. Sometimes attitudes are formed because the person is around other people with that attitude. If a personʼs friends, for example, all hold the attitude that smoking is cool, that person is more likely to think that smoking is cool as well (Brenner, 2007; Eddy et al., 2000; Hill, 1990). The attitudes and behavior of teachers, parents, and siblings matter as well. Researchers found that a nonsmoking mother, teacher, or brother had a strong influence on both girls and boys, making both genders less likely to smoke. Unfortunately, the influence of all three social groups on boys seemed to fade over a 7-year follow-up study (Shean et al., 1994). 5 Vicarious Conditioning (Observational Learning). Many attitudes are learned through the observation of other peopleʼs actions and reactions to various objects, people, or situations. Just as a child whose mother shows a fear of dogs may develop a similar fear, a child whose mother or father shows a positive attitude toward classical music may grow into an adult with a similarly positive attitude. The emotional components of an attitude can be learned by observing the emotional reactions of others, and the behavioral components can be observed and imitated. 6 Attitudes are not only influenced by other people in a personʼs immediate world but also by the larger world of the educational system (many attitudes may be learned in school or through reading books) and the mass media of magazines, television, and the movies—a fact of which advertisers and marketing experts are well aware (Gresham & Shimp, 1985; MacKenzie et al., 1986). —Ciccarelli et al., Psychology, p. 460 11. The thesis of this selection is that a. people form attitudes through direct contact. b. parents have the most influence on a childʼs attitudes. c. attitudes are formed as the result of many different influences. d. advertisers and marketers influence peopleʼs attitudes. 12. The authors support their thesis with all of the following except a. examples. b. research. c. statistics. d. facts. 13. The authorsʼ tone can best be described as a. sarcastic. b. informative. c. pessimistic. d. formal. 14. Vicarious conditioning means that attitudes are learned by a. interacting with others. b. being instructed by others. c. direct contact with others. d. observing othersʼ actions and reactions. 15. For a seven-year follow-up study on the fading influence of parents, teachers, and siblings on boys, the source material is cited as a. Brenner, 2007. b. Eddy, 2000. c. Hill, 1990. d. Shean, 1994. 16. In paragraph 1, the word formation means a. development. b. attention. c. agreement. d. arrangement. 17. In paragraph 2, the word generalized means a. spread. b. worried. c. saved. d. controlled. 18. In paragraph 4, the word fade means a. raise. b. improve. c. confirm. d. weaken. 19. In paragraph 5, the word imitated means a. covered. b. explained. c. copied. d. recorded. 20. In paragraph 6, the word immediate means a. detailed. b. instant. c. dominant. d. nearest.