The Status of Males in Higher Education

advertisement
ASSOCIATION FOR
INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH
2007 ANNUAL FORUM
Kansas City, MO
The Status of Males
in Higher Education:
Losing Momentum
Bobbie Everett
Terri Manning
Central Piedmont Community College
Why We Are Concerned About
Boys?
• National literature, both popular and
scientific, point out gender
differences.
• K-12 data show gender differences.
• Regional and national data show
gender differences.
• Lots of theory.
• No definitive answers.
• What we know…..
Interesting Attitudes
• Some saw this as a “crisis.”
• Others said “survival of the fittest” –
boys can’t compete.
• Others felt “women have been in
this situation for year – now it is
boys’ turn.”
• Others weren’t concerned because it
wasn’t an under-represented group –
it was boys.
Boys Issues in K-12
For Every 100 Girls Who….
Number of Boys
Enroll in Kindergarten
116
Enroll in Ninth Grade
101
Enroll in Twelfth Grade
98
Are Suspended from K-12
250
Are Expelled from K-12
335
Diagnosed with Learning
Disability
276
Enroll in the gifted and talented 94
program
The Boys Project
http://www.boysproject.net
Boys and Their Educational
Choices
For Every 100 Girls Who….
Number of Boys
Graduate from High School
96
Enroll in College
77
Earn an Associates Degree
67
Earn a Bachelors Degree
73
Earn a Masters Degree
62
Earn a Doctorate
92
The Boys Project
http://www.boysproject.net
First Time Freshman Enrollments by
Gender – 50 Years (numbers in
thousands)
1600
(54.8%)
1400
1200
(45.2%)
1000
800
Males
Females
600
400
200
04
20
00
20
95
19
90
19
85
19
80
19
75
19
70
19
65
19
60
19
19
55
0
College Graduation Projections
(numbers in thousands) (61% of
degrees will go to women)
1050
(62.6%)
950
850
Assoc. Degree Male
Assoc. Degree Female
Bach. Degree Male
Bach. Degree Female
750
650
(37.4%)
550
(60%)
450
350
(40%)
250
6
50
20
7
60
20
8
70
20
9
80
20
0
-1
9
0
20
1
-1
0
1
20
2
-1
1
1
20
3
-1
2
1
20
4
-1
3
1
20
Undergraduate Students by
Age, Race and Gender 2003-4
50%
Males <25 yrs
Females <25 yrs
Males >25 yrs
Females >25 yrs
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
White
African
American
Hispanic
Asian
Native
American
All Students
Source: US Dept. of Ed., NCES, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study: 2003-4
Persistence to Bachelors Degree
1989-90 Entrants by 1994
1995-6 Entrants by 2000
Attained BA
Still Enrolled
Persisting
Attained BA
Still Enrolled
Persisting
White Males
33%
16%
49%
31%
18%
49%
White Females
38%
12%
50%
39%
11%
50%
Afr. American
Males
16%
15%
31%
15%
16%
31%
Afr. American
Females
24%
11%
35%
20%
13%
33%
Hispanic Males
19%
12%
31%
18%
11%
28%
Hispanic
Females
29%
14%
43%
21%
13%
34%
All Males
31%
16%
47%
28%
17%
45%
All Females
36%
12%
48%
35%
12%
47%
Source: US Dept. of Ed., NCES, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Studies: 1989/94 and
1995/2001.
What are the Major Theories?
• Economic Incentives for Males – they can earn
more with a high school degree creating a
disincentive for males and an incentive for
females.
• The School Effect for Males – schools are
organized and run in ways that are biased against
boys.
– Sitting still for long periods
– Subject matter (language/literacy in early grades)
– Differences in brain development and learning styles
• Social/Psychological Factors – male role models
are often not educated. Gender differences
hinder boys from dealing with deadlines,
conforming to norms and manage feelings.
Source: Gender Equity in Higher Education: 2006, American Council on
Education Center for Policy Analysis.
Theories, cont.
• Boys are “thumbing their nose” at society
and trying to achieve success through nontraditional means.
• School is a middle-class, female- oriented
entity and boys have learned they don’t
fit in there.
• Advantages are given to females and males
are at a disadvantage. We will eventually
have male liberation movements and
“men’s centers” on campuses.
• Girls are naturally more serious and
studious at young ages. By the time boys
get serious, it is too late.
Change in Median Income for Males
1973-2004
-16.50%
<9th grade
-38.30%
9th - 12th
-26.50%
HS Degree
-13.20%
Some College
-0.40%
Bachelors
21%
-60%
-40%
-20%
Source: Postsecondary Opportunity
0%
Adv. Degree
20%
40%
Changes in Median Income for
Females 1973-2004
<9th grade
9th - 12th
HS Degree
28.90%
2.90%
10.50%
34.40%
Some College
Bachelors
37.80%
35%
Adv. Degree
0%
10%
Source: Postsecondary Opportunity
20%
30%
40%
How College Freshmen Spend
Their Time
70.0%
64.3%
60.0%
64.1%
Males
Females
58.6%
53.9%
50.0%
48.1%
40.0%
32.6%
43.8%
39.1%
25.9%
30.0%
22.3%
24.1%
20.0%
36.8%
49.7%
25.8%
19.1%
10.0%
3.3%
0.0%
c
er
x
E
)
6+
(
ng
isi
W
ch
at
gT
in
V
+)
(6
)
)
)
)
)
+)
+1
6+
1+
1+
6+
6
(
(
(
(
(
g
g(
re
es
er
bs
n
n
a
i
e
i
u
t
c
m
l
y
n
rty
ild
Ga
tC
ud
lu
t
h
n
Pa
o
o
S
V
/C
de
de
k
i
u
r
t
V
o
S
ew
s
u
Ho
Educational Factors from the Lit
• Males and females are perceived differently
in school leading to differential gender
effects.
(Riordan, 2003)
• Student gender and teacher gender plays a
role. Of all children 19 and younger in the
US, 51.3% are male and 25% of K-12 teachers
are males (decreased from 33% in the past
15 years).
(Dee, 2006, NCES, 1998, census.gov, 2006)
• Schools reward students who sit quietly for
longer (female trait) and discipline students
for being too active and energetic (male
traits). Boys are seen as disruptive and are
disciplined for male characteristics.
(Dee 2003, King, 2006, Froschl and Sprung, 2005, Price, 2006)
Educational Factors, cont.
• Schools neglect boys’ needs.” Females
dominate the school system (as teachers) and
gear learning towards females.
(Price, Joyce Howard, 2006)
• Teacher Ed and educational systems do not
prepare teachers to manage the relationships
they develop with their students.
(Froschl and Sprung)
• About 40% of children lack male role models
in the home. The school setting lacks male
role models which may lead to frustrations
among males in school.
Educational Factors, cont.
• The media suggests that males should be
athletes or musicians which may lead to boys
adopting the attitude that school is not
important.
(King, 2006)
• Males may lack a comfortable venue to express
their frustrations and society typically does not
socialize men to be expressive.
(Froshl and Sprung, 2005; Dee 2006; Price 2006)
• Once in higher education, male’s frustrations in
school and society could contribute to poor
male retention and engagement.
Perceived Economic Incentives, Social
Class, Race/Ethnicity and Gender
• The facts:
– African American males are less likely to attend
college.
– Racial/ethnic differences should be recognized in
respect to gender differences and equity in
education.
– Racial/ethnic differences reflect variations in the
expectations of students.
– Social and cultural capital are important contributors
to college enrollment.
– Parental influences contribute to the decision and
ability to attend college.
– Mother’s educational attainment is related to the
likelihood that children will be encouraged to go to
college.
(Perna, 2000)
Economic Incentives
• Women are “getting it” – that educational
achievement matters in terms of potential earnings,
lifestyle options and opportunities for success. Males
don’t seem to get it.
(Mortenson, 2001, p.7)
• A CPCC sociology professor suggests that women place
more value in pursing a higher education - there is a
“different meaning attached to pursuing and obtaining
a higher education”.
• Men perceive they will do better than women with
less educational attainment which creates less of an
economic incentive for them.
• The median income for men with a high school
diploma is $30,366 compared to $24,166 for women
of a similar age range and job history.
(King 2006)
Biology
• Women and men process information
differently.
• Women process information with the
right side of their brains.
• Women can multi-task.
• Males can do physical labor for
longer than females.
• Blue collar jobs may still be a better
option for males than females.
Take a Look at a Large
Urban K-12 School District
2005-2006
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in Charlotte, NC
District = 129,011 Students –
High School Students =36,420
Number in Population
Percent in Population
White
46,316
39.3%
African American
50,646
43.0%
Hispanic*
12,638
10.7%
4,976
4.2%
Native American*
663
0.6%
Multi-racial/other
2,566
2.2%
Asian*
Percent At or Above Grade
Level in Reading (K-8)
95.00%
92.0%
Females
Males
90.00%
88.0%
88.1%
88.1%
88.0%
85.00%
87.7%
82.3%
83.9%
81.0%
80.00%
81.9%
83.8%
83.1%
79.3%
75.3%
75.00%
74.4%
70.00%
73.0%
73.2%
66.1%
65.00%
60.00%
K
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
Percent At or Above Grade
Level in Math (K-8)
90.00%
86.4%
Females
Males
85.00%
83.0%
80.00%
80.9%
80.2%
75.00%
73.7%
70.8%
70.00%
71.6%
68.2%
70.9%
68.0%
65.00%
69.2%
67.8%
65.0%
63.3%
60.8%
60.00%
60.6%
55.00%
59.5%
57.1%
50.00%
K
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
Percent At or Above Grade Level on
State Writing Exam (4th, 7th and 10th
Grades)
Females
Males
70%
60%
57%
54%
50%
69%
54%
42%
36%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
4th
7th
10th
Percent At or Above Grade Level
– End of Course Testing by
Gender
90.0%
80.0%
86.5%
Females
Males
74.5%
78.9%
78.0%
71.8%
68.4%
70.0%
69.2%
70.9%
60.0%
63.2% 61.8%
62.6%
58.4%
62.2%
57.6%
56.3% 55.3%
64.1%
57.1%
56.4%
50.0%
47.1%
I
gl
is
h
Hi
US
En
y
st
or
e
en
c
ca
l
Sc
i
ys
ic
s
Ph
Ph
ys
i
Ch
em
is
try
og
y
ol
Bi
vi
cs
Ci
eo
m
et
ry
II
G
ge
br
a
Al
Al
g
eb
ra
I
40.0%
Why the Flip/Flop?
9th - 12th Grade Dropout Rates (annual)
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Females
3.50%
3.70%
3.30%
Males
5.30%
5.20%
5.40%
Free and reduced lunch
5.70%
6.30%
5.90%
Limited English Proficiency
3.80%
3.40%
3.40%
African American
5.40%
5.30%
5.20%
White
2.90%
3.00%
2.70%
Hispanic
6.80%
7.40%
7.60%
Other
4.40%
4.20%
4.40%
Other Indicators
13.00%
30.00%
Males
Females
12.6%
12.50%
28.2%
28.6%
29.8%
25.00%
12.00%
11.4%
11.50%
11.2%
11.3%
20.00%
16.2%
11.00%
16.9%
15.00%
10.50%
10.00%
9.6%
9.6%
12.5%
10.00%
9.50%
9.00%
5.00%
8.50%
0.00%
8.00%
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Percent Missing 18 Days or More
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Percent Receiving Out-ofSchool Suspension –
Grades 6-12
Other Factors
1200
1,084
Male
Female
1000
800
897
727
550
600
508
391
400
200
0
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Number of Alternative Placements Due to Behavior Violations
Of the 2002-03 Ninth Grade Class
(should have been June 2006
graduates)
70.0%
60.3%
Females
Males
60.0%
48.9%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0%
23.2%
24.7%
20.0%
21.4%
13.2%
10.0%
3.2%
4.9%
0.0%
% graduated
% still active
% left system
% dropped out
2002-03 Ninth Grade Class (5,030 males and 5,551 females)
Mean SAT Subscale Scores by
Gender
540
530
527
520
Female Verbal
Male Verbal
Female Math
Male Math
Female Writing
Male Writing
536
507
510
500
490
505
503
502
502
502
491
492
480
470
460
1995
Females 53%
2006
Females 54%
SAT Scores by Gender
Verbal
20.00%
17.40%
Female
Male
18.00%
17.40%
17.30%
16.00%
16.50%
14.70%
14.00%
13.70%
12.00%
13.60%
13.20%
10.20%
10.00%
11.00%
9.40%
8.00%
8.80%
6.40%
6.00%
4.60%
4.00%
2.00%
1.20%
6.00%
4.60%
1.90%
1.00%
2.80%
1.70%
3.00%
1.80%
1.70%
0.00%
200250
250299
300349
350399
400449
450499
501549
550599
600649
650699
700749
750800
20.00%
18.00%
SAT Scores by Gender
Math
Female Math
Male Math
16.00%
17.10%
17.30%
16.50%
14.90%
15.00%
14.10%
14.00%
13.20%
13.50%
12.00%
11.10%
10.00%
10.10%
9.40%
9.60%
8.00%
6.50%
6.00%
6.10%
4.30%
5.80%
4.00%
2.90%
1.90%
2.00% 1.00%
1.30%
0.80%
0.00%
200- 250- 300- 350- 400- 450250 299 349 399 449 499
3.00%
3.30%
1.30%
501549
550599
600- 650- 700649 699 749
750800
SAT Scores by Gender
Writing
20.00%
Female Writing
Male Writing
17.50%
17.60%
18.00%
15.70%
16.00%
13.90%
12.80%
11.20%
10.00%
9.70%
9.70%
8.80%
8.00%
6.00%
4.00%
17.60%
14.80%
14.00%
12.00%
16.70%
5.90%
5.40%
5.20%
4.30%
2.10%
2.00% 1.00%
1.50%
0.70%
0.00%
200- 250- 300250 299
349
2.60%
2.90%
1.10% 1.40%
350399
400449
450499
501549
550599
600649
650699
700749
750800
Why Don’t Women Do as Well on
the SAT
• It is speculated that test score
differences are the result of
background differences based on
racial/ethnic groups, income as a
proxy for socio-educational status,
presence or absence of certain basic
high school courses and proposed
college major. When scores were
adjusted for these variables, females
scored two points higher on SAT
Verbal.
(Burton, Lewis and Robertson, 1988)
Number and Percent Completing an
Advanced Placement or International
Baccalaureate Course
8,000
7,500
7,719
# females
# males
7,408
7,000
6,771
6,500
6,278
5,870
(55.1%)
(54.1%)
5,000
4,817
4,500
4,000
(62.4%)
(61.8%)
6,000
5,500
(61.2%)
4,677
(45.8%)
2001-02
4,945
5,316
5,431
(54.1%)
(52.1%)
(53.8%)
(49.2%)
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
The New Basics
• One of the best predictors of
enrollment and success in college is
the academic rigor of high school.
• The New Basics are:
–
–
–
–
–
–
4
3
3
3
2
1
years of English
years of social science
years of math
years of science
years of foreign language
semester of computer science
Percent Completing the New
Basics by Gender
35%
33%
30% 29%
Males
Females
30%
27%
25%
23%
20%
18%
15%
18%
12%
10%
10%
5%
28%
2%
2%
0%
1982
1987
1990
1994
1998
2000
Source: US Dept. of Ed., NCES, Digest of Education Statistics 2004.
Full and Part-time Status by
Gender - CPCC
70.00%
Part-time
Full-time
67.5%
67.4%
60.9%
60.9%
60.00%
50.00%
39.1%
39.1%
40.00%
32.6%
32.5%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
Males 2004
Females 2004
Males 2005
Females 2005
50.00%
Percent Attending Full-time by
Race and Gender - CPCC
44.9%
43.6%
45.00%
42.9%
40.0%
39.2%
39.1%
40.00%
34.5%
35.00%
37.5%
36.4%
38.4%
Female
Male
32.9%
30.00%
32.6%
30.2%
25.00%
20.2%
20.00%
Afr. Am er.
Asian
Hispanic
Nat.Am er.
Other
White
T otal
Grade Distribution by Gender
Fall 2004
A
21.5%
31.8%
23.5%
26.3%
C
7.2%
D
3.6%
12.7%
B
A
23.1%
F
W
Of the 27,438 course
registrations that female
students completed.
B
C
9.8%
21.7%
4.4%
14.4%
D
F
W
Of the 20,538 course
registrations that male
students completed.
Grade Distribution by Gender
Fall 2005
A
A
22%
31%
C
8%
D
3%
13%
23%
Of the 27,510 course
registrations that female
students completed.
23%
B
F
W
26%
B
C
10%
5%
D
22%
14%
F
W
Of the 20,669 course
registrations that male
students completed.
New Students – Percent Testing to
Developmental by Gender - CPCC
Dev. English
Dev. Reading
Dev. Math
90.1%
58.0%
45.5%
Female 2004
89.7%
50.7%
47.4%
Male 2004
90.0%
61.9%
48.5%
Female 2005
84.5%
52.5%
49.3%
Male 2005
Did They Take
Developmental Math?
Took Developmental
Did not take
100.00%
80.00%
56.5%
59.3%
60.00%
43.53%
40.67%
49.6%
50.4%
49.5%
50.5%
40.00%
20.00%
0.00%
Males 2004 Females 2004 Males 2005 Females 2005
Did They Take
Developmental Reading
Took Developmental
Did not take
100.0%
80.0%
65.9%
54.3%
60.0%
55.3%
45.6%
44.7%
52.5%
47.5%
34.1%
40.0%
20.0%
0.0%
Males 2004
Females 2004
Males 2005
Females 2005
Did They Take
Developmental English
Took Developmental
100
Did not take
74.9%
76.4%
71.4%
80
79.0%
60
40
23.6%
25.09%
28.6%
21.0%
20
0
Males
2004
Females
2004
Males
2005
Females
2005
Percent A-C Grades by Gender
in Developmental Courses
85
85
80
80
74.4%
75
73.5%
75
75.0%
70
72.0%
65
60
70
70.1%
70.6%
65
53.4%
Males
Females
55
50
64.7%
60
53.4%
55
Males
Females
50
47.3%
45
40
78.2%
45
45.5%
Dev. Math
Dev. Reading
Fall 2004
Dev. English
40
Dev. Math
Dev. Reading Dev. English
Fall 2005
Total Bachelor’s Degrees
Awarded
900,000
800,000
Males US
Males SREB
7 00,000
Females US
Females SREB
600,000
5 00,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000
4
-0
3
20
0
3
-0
-0
0
20
0
2
99
8
19
97
-9
19
96
-9
7
6
19
59
19
9
495
19
9
394
19
9
293
19
9
192
19
9
99
0
9
19
8
-8
8
8
19
8
78
7
19
8
68
19
8
48
5
3
19
8
28
19
8
19
8
18
2
0
Gateway Course Performance
Of Top 20 Highest Enrolled by Gender
Class
%ABC
%DFW
%ABC
%DFW
Female
Female
Male
Male
ENG 090
79.0%
21.0%
68.8%
31.3%
ENG 090A
78.7%
21.3%
69.1%
30.9%
RED 090
76.6%
23.4%
69.6%
30.4%
ACA 111
73.0%
27.0%
66.5%
33.5%
ENG 111
71.4%
28.6%
61.4%
38.6%
COM 110
67.5%
32.5%
57.2%
42.8%
PSY 150
66.3%
33.7%
65.1%
34.9%
Gateway Course Performance
Of Top 20 Highest Enrolled by Gender
Class
%ABC
%DFW
%ABC
%DFW
Female
Female
Male
Male
HIS 111
64.4%
35.6%
59.9%
40.1%
SPA 111
61.0%
39.0%
47.1%
52.9%
COM 231
60.8%
39.2%
58.0%
42.0%
CIS 111
59.9%
40.1%
54.3%
45.7%
SOC 210
58.5%
41.5%
51.2%
48.8%
CIS 110
58.1%
41.9%
52.3%
47.7%
MAT 161
57.2%
42.8%
51.2%
48.8%
Gateway Course Performance
Of Top 20 Highest Enrolled by Gender
Class
%ABC
%DFW
%ABC
%DFW
Female
Female
Male
Male
ENG 113
57.2%
42.8%
45.4%
54.6%
MAT 060
55.4%
44.6%
45.1%
54.9%
MAT 070
54.6%
45.4%
43.8%
56.2%
MAT 080
52.8%
47.2%
44.7%
55.3%
SPA 181
48.7%
51.3%
36.6%
63.4%
HIS 131
42.9%
57.1%
43.8%
56.2%
Graduation at CPCC by
Gender
Male
% Male Female
% Female
Students
All Associate
401
41.5%
566
58.5%
967
All Diploma
946
41.9%
1,313
58.1%
2,259
All Certificate
131
54.4%
110
45.6%
241
All Credentials
1478
42.6%
1989
57.4%
3,467
Graduations by Race and Gender
at CPCC
Total Degrees Awarded by Race and Geder
Males
African Amer
% male
Females
% female
Total
% by Race
278
8.0%
482
13.9%
760
21.9%
3
0.1%
12
0.3%
15
0.4%
Asian
60
1.7%
92
2.7%
152
4.4%
Hispanic
68
2.0%
130
3.7%
198
5.7%
White
1,034
29.8%
1,200
34.6%
2234
64.4%
Other
35
1.0%
73
2.1%
108
3.1%
1478
42.6%
1989
57.4%
3467
Nat. Amer.
% by Gender
Qualitative Data
• Survey emailed in April 2007
– 39 faculty responded from elementary
to university level
– 59% female
– age range 25-75
– years of experience in education 3-45
– 48.7% had masters degree, 15.4% had
doctorates
Research Literature
• We found the following to be
documented as fact in the literature:
– Gender of the student matters in regard
to the relationship developed between
student and teacher
– Gender of the teacher matters in regard
to the relationship developed between
student and teacher
– The ways males are socialized to be
“masculine” hinders healthy
development in boys
– Gender socialization hinders boys from
communicating in school
Respondents Perceived No Real
Gender Impact on Student
Relationships
• 25.7% felt their relationships with their students are
different based on the student’s gender.
• 35.9% felt their own gender played a role in their
relationships with students.
• 56.4% felt early childhood is a high risk time in the
life of boys.
• 52.6% felt the traditional concept of “masculinity” is
a major obstacle to healthy development in boys.
• 47.4% felt gender socialization hinders male students
from expressing themselves in the classroom.
Research Literature
• We found the following to be documented
as fact in the literature:
– Literacy problems among males leads to higher
high school dropout rates.
– Females were more likely than males to be
focused on their careers in high school.
– Females were more likely than males to have
clear plans about how to achieve their career
goals.
– A lack of male role models is a disadvantage
for male students.
– Slower maturation rates in boys affect student
behavior and performance.
– Boys needed to be more physically active in
school to remain focused.
Respondents were Mixed on These
Perceived Gender Differences
• 60.5% felt literacy problems among males leads to
higher high school dropout rates.
• 29% felt that females were more likely than males to be
focused on their careers in high school.
• 26.3% felt that females were more likely than males to
have clear plans about how to achieve their career
goals.
• 61% felt a lack of male role models is a disadvantage for
male students.
• 50% felt that boys’ slower maturation rates affect
student behavior and performance.
• 39.4% felt boys needed to be more physically active in
school to remain focused.
Research Literature
• We found the following to be documented as
fact in the literature:
– Boys were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD
than girls.
– Males prefer to do problem solving in small chunks
while girls prefer to multi-task and attack problems
simultaneously.
– Gender differences favor males on scholastic tests.
– The gender of the teacher impacted student
performance.
– Students performed better when taught by same
gender teachers.
– School systems need to hire more male teachers in
elementary and middle school.
– School systems should encourage same sex
classrooms.
Respondents were Mixed on These
Perceived Gender Differences
• 55.3% agreed that boys were more likely to be
diagnosed with ADHD than girls.
• 42.1% agreed that males prefer to do problem solving in
small chunks while girls prefer to multi-task and attack
problems simultaneously.
• Only 21.1% felt gender differences favored males on
scholastic tests.
• 34.2% felt the gender of the teacher impacted student
performance.
• 18.4% felt student performed better when taught by
same gender teachers.
• 78.4% felt school systems should try to hire more male
teachers in elementary and middle school.
• Only 15.8% felt school systems should encourage same
sex classrooms.
Respondents Felt the Issues Were
More Related to Diversity, Peer
Influence and Family - Not Gender
• 92.1% felt diversity in the classroom affected
the learning environment.
• 73.7% felt racial/ethnic and social class
differences affect academic achievement.
• 73.6% felt parental education is a strong
indicator of a student’s motivation in the
classroom.
• 89.5% felt cultural differences among students
influence their engagement in education.
• 76.3% felt racial/ethnic differences explained
some of the difference in educational
expectations among students.
Respondents Felt the Issues Were
More Related to Diversity, Peer
Influence and Family - Not Gender
• 89.5% felt parents strongly influence their
children’s behaviors and attitudes toward
school.
• 60.5% felt educational expectations among
students are related to the mother’s
expectations.
• 79% felt that peer encouragement is related to
academic achievement.
• 59.4% felt financial resources was a good
predictor of educational expectations.
Research Literature
• We found the following to be documented
as fact in the literature:
– Perceived future benefits from higher
education were more apparent in women than
men.
– The perceived financial rewards for higher
education were greater among females than
males.
– Males can still find satisfactory employment
with a high school degree diminishing the need
for a college education. But this is decreasing.
– The cost of higher ed outweighed the benefits
– more so for men than women.
Respondents were Mixed on These
Perceived Gender Differences
• 39.4% felt that expected future benefits from
higher education is more apparent in women
than men.
• 79% felt that the perception of financial
rewards for higher education is greater among
females than males.
• Only 28.9% felt that males could still find
satisfactory employment with a high school
degree diminishing the need for a college
education.
• Only 18.4% felt the cost of higher ed
outweighed the benefits – more so for en than
women.
What Observations Have You Made
About Gender Differences in the
Classroom
• Males:
–
–
–
–
Slower maturation
Don’t ask questions
Speak for longer periods than females
Must be told the same thing multiple times
for it to sink in
– More honest about their role in poor work
– More comfortable with
machines/equipment
What Observations Have You
Made About Gender Differences in
the Classroom
• Males:
– Try their own approach to a problem (not
what they have been taught)
– More willing to discuss problems they are
having with the material
– Take responsibility for learning and skills
development
– More “hands on” and want to move around
– Want more real world connections
– Like practical discussions and assignments
What Observations Have You
Made About Gender Differences
in the Classroom
• Females:
– Work and read more
– Are interrupted more often when
speaking
– Ask clarifying questions
– More detail oriented
– More motivated and can multi-task
– Better prepared
– More focused
What Observations Have You
Made About Gender Differences
in the Classroom
• Females:
– Want a structured and serene
environment
– Focused on goals and how the class
relates to the goals
– Speak out more
– Less reserved in the classroom
Findings
• We are losing girls but we are losing boys
twice as fast.
• The pattern begins in elementary school.
• Males are less likely to:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Graduate from high school
Go to college
Complete within 150% of time
Graduate from college
Test into remedial courses
Take remedial courses if placed there
Make A-C grades
Findings
• Males are less likely go to college as older
students (25 years+).
• Males spend more time while in college
pursuing recreational activities (partying,
video games, exercise, etc.) while females
spend more time studying, volunteering,
participating in student clubs and
maintaining a home/family.
• The earning power of males has
diminished over the past 20 years in all
educational categories except for those
earning a graduate degree.
Findings
• Females are completing a more
rigorous curriculum in high school
than boys (reversed the 80s trend).
• Females are taking more AP and IB
classes.
• At CPCC we found:
– More females than males are testing
into developmental courses.
– More females than males are making A-C
grades.
– More females than males are completing
a credential (except certificates).
For A Copy of This
Presentation or the Full Paper
• http://www.cpcc.edu/planning
• Click on “studies and reports”
• Contact:
– Terri Manning
– Bobbie Everett
[email protected]
[email protected]
Download